that required institutional change. Even simple PI-to-PI research agreements were held up as examples of difficult contractual transactions.
Workshop presentations revealed that the institutional changes required to facilitate collaboration were sometimes at the agency level, as demonstrated by differences in agency-wide collaborative practices presented by DOD and NIST relative to DOE. They were sometimes at the level of the individual institution, as demonstrated by the widely varying degrees of institution-by-institution concern regarding specific expense categories (travel support, conference support, academic center support, and support of joint appointments). Sometimes, however, they were purely cultural, as in the different values accorded to “team science” versus individual contributions.
Piecemeal sharing of best practices appears to have occurred to some degree (e.g., transfer of the Los Alamos Oppenheimer fellows concept to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), but no evidence was presented of a systematic effort to share best practices throughout the laboratory and university systems. It is hoped that this volume represents a successful first attempt.