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Power-Sector Energy Consumption and Pollution Control in China

XUCHANG XU, CHANGHE CHEN, HAIYIN QI, DINGKAI LI, CHANGFU YOU, and GUANGMING XIANG

Tsinghua University

Energy consumption and urban air pollution have been inextricably linked in China for decades, because coal combustion is the main source of fuel for the Chinese economy. Because of growing pollution problems, concerns about global warming, and expected increases in private transportation, this a critical time for Chinese energy policy makers. In addition, energy policy in China has farranging effects on the rest of the world because of China’s increasing demand for oil and gas, as well as other commodities, such as steel. Thus everyone has a stake in seeing China develop a sound and sustainable energy policy. Fortunately, the Chinese government, which manages the economy as a whole, is in a position to make this happen.

In 2000, total energy consumption in China was 1,357 million tons carbon equivalent (Mtce) (i.e., 950 million tons oil equivalent [Mtoe]). As Figure 1 shows, total energy consumption in China is less than consumption in the United States but greater than consumption in India. The gross domestic product (GDP) of China was also much smaller (only about one-fifth) than the GDP of the United States. Figure 2 shows the average per capita energy consumption for China and for other countries in kilograms coal equivalent [kgce]. In 1990, per capita energy consumption in China was 1,110 kgce, or 1.11 tons carbon equivalent (tce), per capita (i.e., one-tenth the per capita consumption in the United States). By 2000, that figure had increased to 1.35 tce per capita (i.e., one-seventh that of the United States). By 2010, the number is expected to reach 1.6 to 1.85 tce per capita. Although China’s per capita energy consumption is similar to that of many other developing countries, because of the size of the population,



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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium Power-Sector Energy Consumption and Pollution Control in China XUCHANG XU, CHANGHE CHEN, HAIYIN QI, DINGKAI LI, CHANGFU YOU, and GUANGMING XIANG Tsinghua University Energy consumption and urban air pollution have been inextricably linked in China for decades, because coal combustion is the main source of fuel for the Chinese economy. Because of growing pollution problems, concerns about global warming, and expected increases in private transportation, this a critical time for Chinese energy policy makers. In addition, energy policy in China has farranging effects on the rest of the world because of China’s increasing demand for oil and gas, as well as other commodities, such as steel. Thus everyone has a stake in seeing China develop a sound and sustainable energy policy. Fortunately, the Chinese government, which manages the economy as a whole, is in a position to make this happen. In 2000, total energy consumption in China was 1,357 million tons carbon equivalent (Mtce) (i.e., 950 million tons oil equivalent [Mtoe]). As Figure 1 shows, total energy consumption in China is less than consumption in the United States but greater than consumption in India. The gross domestic product (GDP) of China was also much smaller (only about one-fifth) than the GDP of the United States. Figure 2 shows the average per capita energy consumption for China and for other countries in kilograms coal equivalent [kgce]. In 1990, per capita energy consumption in China was 1,110 kgce, or 1.11 tons carbon equivalent (tce), per capita (i.e., one-tenth the per capita consumption in the United States). By 2000, that figure had increased to 1.35 tce per capita (i.e., one-seventh that of the United States). By 2010, the number is expected to reach 1.6 to 1.85 tce per capita. Although China’s per capita energy consumption is similar to that of many other developing countries, because of the size of the population,

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 1 Energy consumption by population for different countries. FIGURE 2 Average energy consumption per capita for different countries (in kilograms coal equivalent [kgce; 1,000 kgce = 1 tce]).

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium China is one of the largest consumers of energy in the world. Therefore, energy consumption and pollution must be carefully regulated. By 2050, the International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that total energy consumption in China could reach 3,440 Mtce, 2.5 times the consumption in 2000. This estimate is in agreement with an assessment by the Chinese Academy of Engineering published in 1998 (see Figure 3). If current trends continue, the population of China in 2050 could reach 1.6 billion, and average energy consumption per capita could reach 2.15 tce (i.e., one-quarter of energy consumption in the United States in 2000). At that point, China would be tenth in the world in terms of per capita energy consumption. For the next 50 years, perhaps even 100 years, most of the energy consumed in China will continue to come from coal (Figure 4). Currently, 70 percent of total energy in China is produced from coal. The percentage is expected to drop to FIGURE 3 Primary energy production and consumption in China.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 4 Estimated energy consumption in China, 2004–2030. 66 percent by 2020, but the total amount of coal consumed is expected to increase to 1.2 to 3.1 billion tons, or even 4 billion tons, depending on the level of economic development and the cost of other fuels. In any case, China must focus on reducing air pollution from coal combustion. Coal is the source of a moderate fraction of the energy consumed in most developed countries. For example, in 1999 in the United States, only 25 percent of total energy came from coal. The percentages for Japan, France, and several other developed countries are similar. China, however, will continue to rely heavily on coal because it is the largest locally exploitable fossil resource. In fact, China has few other choices at this time. Therefore, China must balance the use of coal against environmental protection, which will require reducing overall energy consumption and developing and implementing pollution-control systems.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium THE POWER SECTOR The total electric power capacity in China in 2000 was 319 gigawatts-electric (GWe), of which 230 GWe was from coal. It is estimated that the total electric power capacity in China will rise to 580 GWe by 2010, of which 350 GWe will be from coal. Even though China’s total electric power generating capacity is the second highest in the world, annual average per capita consumption is very low, close to 1,100 kilowatt-hours (kWh) (i.e., an order of magnitude less than the average consumption level in the United States), as shown in Figure 5. Even in 2050, if the Chinese economy continues to develop, the annual per capita average might be only 4,460 kWh, close to one-third that of the United States in 2000. Because of China’s large population, however, which could reach 1.6 billion by 2050, the overall annual power consumption level could be as high as 1,560 GW. In the United States, almost 91 percent of coal consumption is used for electric power generation. The total amount of coal consumed in the United States is less than in China. Chinese coal-based power generation increased from 25 percent in 1990 to 47.8 percent in 2002; China also uses coal power for industrial and domestic purposes (cooking and heating). Recently, China has made major efforts to change the energy mix to reduce air pollution in key cities; for example, China has tried to import natural gas and to produce natural gas and oil for domestic use. Because the primary energy mix has improved in some large FIGURE 5 Average electricity consumption per capita in different countries.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 6 Percentage of coal consumption for electricity generation in China. Chinese cities (e.g., Beijing), the ambient air quality in those cities is now much better than it was 10 years ago. Because China will have to rely increasingly on imported oil and natural gas imports, the strategy will be to build large, centralized coal-burning facilities to control air pollution. Large power plants can be built or retrofitted with pollution-control technologies, unlike the thousands of small boilers prevalent in Chinese cities. Even though the percentage of coal consumption for electricity generation could therefore continue to increase (Figure 6) and could reach 65 percent by 2050, it would still be lower than the more than 90 percent in the United States in 1999. Therefore, air pollution from coal consumption in the power sector in China is a relatively manageable problem. CONTROL OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS China’s dependence on coal as an energy source is not expected to change in the near future. Thus, two strategies for environmental control should be considered: (1) improving the efficiency of the energy-conversion process; and (2) improving the efficiency of energy consumption. Tables 1 and 2 show the

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium TABLE 1 Improvements in Energy Efficiency in China Energy Consumption by Product or Sector 1980 1985 1990 1995 Electricity (coal) (gce/kWh) 448 431 427 412 Steel (kgce/t) 2040 1746 1611 1519 Cement (kgce/t) 206.5 201.1 185.3 175.3 Synthetic ammonia (kgce/t) 3021 2358 2263 2090 Transportation by train (kgce/104tkm) 147.1 118.7 84.2 58.6 TABLE 2 Results of Investments in Energy Efficiency   1980–1990 1991–1995 Total investment 27.2 billion yuan 40 billion yuan Energy savings 55.8 Mtce/year 61 Mtce/year large investments to improve energy efficiency and implement energy-saving technologies in China between 1980 and 1995, and the positive results. These investments are expected to continue. Since 1950, coal consumption per kWh has been reduced by half (Figure 7), but compared with developed countries, it is still high. One way to address this problem is to use supercritical boilers, which are used elsewhere in large coal-fired power plants with thermal efficiencies as high as 41 to 47 percent. Supercritical boilers offer a proven, commercially available way to improve efficiency at a competitive cost relative to other clean-coal technologies Overall, in 1997, China consumed 8 to 9 percent of the world’s energy total but was responsible for 15.1 percent of SO2 emissions. A year before that, in 1996, total SO2 emissions in China were 23.46 million tons (Mt)—considered the highest in the world at that time. Since 1996, SO2 emissions have decreased slightly as coal consumption has been reduced as a result of adjustments in the economic structure of heavy industry (Figure 8). China emits about 10.1 percent of global NOx emissions and 9.6 percent of global CO2 emissions. According to 1997 data, coal combustion accounted for approximately 87 percent of SO2 emissions, 71 percent of CO2 emissions, 67 percent of NOx emissions, and 60 percent of particulate emissions. The huge emissions of SO2 and NOx have already caused a great deal of damage to the environment in China. For example, about 40 percent of the total area of China (mostly in eastern China) has pH values of less than 5.6 (see Figures 9 and 10). In the hardest hit areas, pollution has affected both public health and agricultural yields. According to an estimate by the Chinese Research Institute of Environment, the total economic

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 7 Coal consumption for electric power generation (gce/kWh). FIGURE 8 SO2 and NOx emissions (Mt/year).

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 9 Damage from SO2 and NOx emissions. FIGURE 10 Map showing pH values of soil in China.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium TABLE 3 Total Economic Loss from Acid Rain and Acid Deposition in China   Year Economic Loss (billion yuan) 1995 2000 Agriculture 21.77 28.48 Forestry 77.58 128.44 Human Health 17.19 19.60 Total 116.54 176.42 loss from acid deposition in China in 1995 was 116.54 billion yuan; in 2000, just five years later, it reached 176.42 billion yuan (Table 3). Pollution from coal combustion has also been an impediment to economic and social development in China. The United States, the European Union, and Japan have all invested significant resources in fundamental research to control emissions from coal combustion, and many new power-generation techniques using coal could be used in China. For example, combined-cycle power generation and fuel cells (powered by gas made from coal) have a high energy-conversion efficiency and produce low emissions. But even if these technologies are used to produce 5 GWe by 2010, they would account for only 1 percent of the total power generation in China, which will total 580 GWe. Virtually all new coal-fired power plants and some older, retrofitted units use flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) and particulate controls via electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Nevertheless, pollution control of direct coal combustion must remain a high priority for both the government and the private sector. The most economical way to reduce SO2 emissions is to burn low-sulfur coal (S < 0.6 to 1 percent) and minimize the use of high-sulfur coal (S > 3 percent). If coal-fired boilers in China did not use high-sulfur coal, emissions of SO2 would be reduced by 1.5 Mt/year by 2010. Although this approach would be environmentally sound, it would require major shifts in social and economic policy. The government would have to close many mines, provide a social safety net for displaced workers, and require power plants to use the more expensive, low-sulfur coal. Another method of reducing SO2 emissions is to wash coal before it is burned. This can reduce the sulfur pyrite content of medium- and high-sulfur coal

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium (S > 1 percent). Washing coal requires minimal investment and entails only a moderate increase in operating costs. However, the associated water pollution must then be addressed. From 1960 to 1980, many engineers and government officials argued that China should use all of its natural resources, including high-ash, low-heating-value coals and mine wastes. Now the country has changed its approach. If all coals are washed before burning, the desulfurization rate could be as high as 20 percent. This would not only reduce SO2 emissions, but would also increase the heating value of raw coal and reduce acid deposition; in addition, it would reduce the need for transporting coal. However, it would require approximately 16 billion yuan to increase the amount of coal washed today (280 Mt) to 420 Mt, about 30 percent of the total amount of coal used. With FGD, mine wastes with high sulfur content could also be burned. Waste coal can not be desulfurized at mine sites because it causes acid drainage problems, but it could be desulfurized at the combustion site. Based on the availability and use of waste coal, emissions of SO2 could be reduced by desulfurization by 6 percent, 1.5 Mt/year. However, power planners have yet to fully analyze the overall costs and benefits, including the social and environmental trade-offs, of coal washing and using low-sulfur coal. Regulations for SO2 emissions for the so-called “two control zones of SO2 emissions in China” were issued in 1998. Under this regulatory regime, coal users are encouraged to use low-sulfur coals, and high-sulfur coal mines must be closed. The regulations also require that all green-field coal-fired power plants with capacities of more than 300 MWe install FGD facilities beginning in 1999. As a result, SO2 emissions in China have been reduced somewhat (Figure 11). Current regulations also require that all power plants using coal with medium or high sulfur content install FGD facilities by 2010. If wet FGD is used for a plant that produces only 30 GWe, for example, SO2 emissions will be reduced by 3 Mt. The investment would be at least 33 billion yuan. Investment costs in FGD facilities, at 1,100 yuan per kWe, would be approximately 18 percent of the total investment of power plant capacity. Another method currently used to control sulfur emissions in China is pulverized coal briquettes with limestone (a desulfurization additive), which is used for most home cooking and heating; the briquettes are manufactured in small neighborhood shops. But briquettes can also be used in larger industrial boilers. With an investment of about 2 billion yuan, 113 Mt of briquettes with desulfurization additives could be produced for domestic and other uses. Even though total operating costs would be high because there are more than 5 million small industrial boilers scattered throughout China, desulfurization could have a major impact on ground-level air pollution, especially in many northern cities where small boilers are ubiquitous. With the combined use of coal washing, briquetting, circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers, and FGD techniques, total SO2 emissions could be reduced

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 11 Total SO2 emissions in China. from the current 30 Mt to 24 Mt. An important element of this program would be to reduce the cost of FGD through massive deployment. Imported wet FGD facilities have sulfur-removal efficiencies as high as 95 percent, but they require a high initial investment (12 to 20 percent of total investment in a power plant) and high operating costs. If the initial investment could be reduced to 8 percent, the same investment would almost double the electricity capacity of coal-fired power plants with FGD. Therefore, research and development on low-cost FGD technology is very important for China. Although the economic burden would be heavy, if wet FGD were installed in 20 percent of the total coal-fired power capacity in China (400 GWe) by 2010, 80 GWe of capacity would then be produced with FGD. This would reduce SO2 emissions by 5.6 Mt/year and would require an investment of about 80 billion yuan (based on the 1995 capital cost of 1,200 yuan per kWe). An additional 8 billion yuan would be required for annual operating costs (maintenance, calcium, and electricity consumption). Thus, for the next 10 years, the total costs for wet FGD could be as high as 160 billion yuan. Unfortunately, this sum is considered far too expensive for any developing country. There have been some positive developments. In the past 10 years, new FGD technologies with Chinese domestic patents have been developed; in addition

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium advanced FGD technologies from abroad have been imported. As a result, the investment costs of wet FGD dropped quickly from 800 yuan/kWe in 2000 to 300 yuan/kWe by the end of 2002. In other words, wet FGD requires only about one-quarter the investment cost required in 1995, a cost many developing countries can afford. The total capacity of coal-fired power plants equipped with wet FGD in China was only 1 GWe at the end of 1995. It is expected to reach 14 GWe by the end of 2006, almost doubling every three years. Capacity could reach 35 GWe by 2010, with a total investment in low-cost FGD systems of 20 billion yuan. Table 4 shows the potential decrease in SO2 emissions by 2010, with investment and operating costs one-fourth to one-third lower than in 1995. Although water can be reused and recirculated in wet FGD systems, large quantities of water are lost through evaporation. Even the semidry FGD process, such as the FGD-CFB technique, consumes large amounts of water, generally 70 to 80 percent of the amount consumed for wet-FGD systems. Therefore, these systems may be difficult to use in northern and northwestern China, where water is not readily available. Therefore, China should focus on developing FGD systems that require smaller quantities of water. Tsinghua University and Tokyo University recently initiated a joint project to study dry FGD processes that require less water. CONTROL OF NITROGEN OXIDE EMISSIONS The problem of NOx emissions has become quite serious in China. Emissions are mainly from coal combustion, but also can originate in any high-temperature combustion process, such as internal combustion engines. Although NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants can be easily controlled, there is no regulatory regime in place. Thus, they totaled 1.3 Mt in 1989, 2.65 Mt in 1995, and 2.85 Mt in 2000. Total NOx emissions from coal combustion and cars in 1996 was 12 Mt and continue to increase. NOx emissions depend largely on energy-consumption levels and GDP, and the highest GDP in China is concentrated mostly in developed areas along the east coast of China. Average annual NOx emissions in kg/year per capita are generally related to energy consumption per capita, although this relationship does not necessarily hold true in all parts of China. For example, in Shanxi province and Xinjiang, GDP levels are low and energy-consumption levels are low, but NOx emissions per capita are high. This is because the percentage of energy from coal is much higher in those areas than elsewhere in the country. In those areas, the value of NOx emissions per 1,000 yuan of GDP is also very high. Overall, more than 70 percent of NOx emissions in China are primarily from coal combustion (Figure 12). The highest NOx level of emissions from coal combustion in China was 9.17 Mt in 1996. Oil combustion and cars accounted for about 15 percent of the overall total. In big cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium TABLE 4 SO2 Emissions Reductions and Costs by 2010 (Ca/S is the calcium-to-sulfur molar ratio)         FGD Systems   Unit Coal Preparation Use of CFB boilers Cost of Wet FGD before 1995 Low-Cost FGD Desulfurization efficiency Percentage ~20 At Ca/S = 2 ~75 At Ca/S = 1.1 ~95 At Ca/S = 1.1 85–95 Required reduction of SO2 emissions Mt/year 2 0.4 3.1 3.1 Total investment costs Billion yuan ~22 ~6 ~70 ~20   Yuan/kg SO2 ~11 ~15 ~22.6 ~6 Total operating costs (10 years) Billion yuan ~18–24 ~6.4–7.6 ~60–70 ~22–25   Yuan/kg SO2 ~0.8–1.2 ~1.0–1.6 ~1.9–2.3 ~0.7–1.1

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 12 NOx emission sources. Guangzhou, however, oil combustion and cars accounted for nearly half of the total. The most widely used technique for reducing NOx emissions will be low-NOx coal-combustion techniques, which include CFB boilers and low-NOx burners. The investment in low-NOx burners is about 0.03 percent of the capital cost of a power plant and 0.18 percent of the capital cost of a boiler. Over the years, low-NOx burners have been installed in 130 boilers in 69 coal-fired power plants. In addition, low-NOx, pulverized-coal combustion techniques have been developed by research institutes and universities in China for different types of coal-fired utility boilers. Chinese utility power plants are now beginning to use modern selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to reduce NOx emissions. REDUCING PARTICULATES, DUST, AND CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS The coal-fired electricity-generating capacity in China has increased rapidly in the past decade. From 1990 to 1999, capacity increased from 76 GW to 180 GW, and annual coal consumption by power plants increased from 240 Mt/year to 400 Mt/year. In the same period, annual dust emissions from power plants decreased slightly (from 3.63 Mt/year to 3.4 Mt/year) and flue-gas dust concentration decreased to 50–150 mg/m3 as a result of the installation of many four-electric-field ESPs, with dust-collection efficiencies as high as 99.5 percent. These levels are on a par with systems in the United States and European Union. Despite the decrease in annual dust emissions from power plants, ambient air

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium quality in most Chinese urban areas deteriorated because of an increase in very small, inhalable particles. The diameter of these particles is less than 10µm (PM10), too small to be collected by a locally manufactured ESP. High levels of PM10 reduce visibility. Chinese cities that are heavily polluted by PM10 included Chongqing, Taiyuan, and Hohhot. Annual PM10 values for several international cities are shown for comparison in Table 5. Inhalable PM10 particles in Chinese urban areas are mainly from coal combustion, whereas in Western countries, most urban PM10 originates from tailpipe emissions from cars. Only in big Chinese cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, where there are many cars, are emissions of PM10 from cars close to emissions from coal combustion. Because the percentage of electricity generation from coal consumption is expected to rise to 65 percent by 2050, controlling PM10 from coal-fired power plants is very important, and efforts should be focused on the development of low-cost, high-efficiency dust-collection technologies. In the past, power plants fueled by residual heavy oil from petroleum refineries were not required to have dust-collection devices. Today, dust concentrations are measured at the exit of every boiler in Beijing, which typically measures 300–400 mg/m3, generally much higher than after passing through a four-electric-field ESP at a typical coal-fired power plant (50–150 mg/m3). Another approach to collecting dust is a bag house with a polyporous membrane; dust concentrations with this method average 10 mg/m3. Thus, PM10 pollution from this source has been greatly reduced. CO2 is a greenhouse gas, and CO2 emissions are therefore implicated in global climate change. The most important and enterprising measures for reducing CO2 emissions are devices with improved energy efficiency and energy saving. Overall, China must keep working on reducing the amount of energy consumed for every kWh of electric power generated. In addition, China must control emissions of heavy metals (e.g., mercury, arsenic, etc.) from power plants. OPTIMAL ECOLOGY OF COAL ENERGY SYSTEMS By-products of calcium-sorbent desulfurization systems, CaSO4 and CaSO3, as well as fly ash from coal-fired power plants, can be used as additives in cement or for construction materials for highways. Recently, other uses have been found, such as improving alkali soils, red acid soils, and desert soils. There are about 100,000 square kilometers of saline-alkali soils in northern and northwestern China. For the past eight years, researchers from the University of Tokyo, using by-products of FGD, have been able to significantly improve alkali soils in the Kangping field of Shenyang. Since 2000, alkali soil in the Tumochuan alkali field close to Hohhot, the capital of Inner Mongolia, has also been significantly improved. After soils have been mixed with FGD by-products, farmers appear to have good harvests of corn (Figure 13), sunflowers, alfalfa, and

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium TABLE 5 Annual Average PM10 Concentrations (December 1997 through March 1998)   Rochester, UK Zurich, Switzerland Fresno, USA Tokyo, Japan Milan, Italy Zingbo, China Beijing, China Hohhot, China PM10 (mg/m3) 0.018 0.031 0.083 0.088 0.099 0.230 0.250 0.541

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 13 Test field of alkali soil in Tumochuan, Inner Mongolia. a. Before treatment. b. After treatment.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium other crops on previously infertile lands. The positive effects appear to last more than eight years without additional treatment. Since 2001, areas of red acid soils in southern China have also been treated. This area is about 900,000 square kilometers, 10 percent of the total territory of China. Test results for growing soy beans, peanuts, radishes, sugar cane, rice, and eucalyptus in treated soils have also been positive. CONCLUSIONS Total energy consumption in China is significant, but the average energy consumption per capita is modest compared with consumption in developed countries. Because of its enormous size and rapid growth, Chinese energy policy will have a significant impact on the rest of the world. Most of the energy consumed in China, now and for the next 50 years, will come from coal. Controlling air pollution, therefore, must be a high priority for China. China needs advanced, low-cost pollution-control techniques for industrial plants, power plants, and the thousands of small boilers scattered throughout the country. China also needs low-cost, low-water-consuming FGD techniques, low-cost techniques for reducing NOx emissions, and efficient, low-cost, control techniques for reducing PM10 emissions. China’s development of pollution control and optimal management technologies must go hand in hand with rapid economic development. Therefore, technologies for addressing China’s environmental and ecological problems must be suited to the stage of economic development and in keeping with national development goals. China must find ways to optimize coal-energy systems and treating large areas of alkali soils, acid soils, and desert soils. At the same time, China must pursue research and development on energy-conservation measures, renewable-energy systems, and low-emission transportation systems. Both the government and outside actors are assisting in the development of pollution-control systems. BIBLIOGRAPHY Chinese Academy of Engineering. 1998. Consultation Report on Energy Stratagem of Sustainable Development of China. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Engineering. In Chinese. Chinese Academy of Engineering. 2001. The Consultation Report on Efficient Combustion and Pollution Control of Coal-Fired Industrial Boilers in China. Beigjing: Chinese Academy of Engineering. In Chinese.

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