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Clean Air and the Electrification of Urban Transportation

LUGUANG YAN

XUHUI WEN

Institute of Electrical Engineering

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Although cities have been around for at least 5,000 years, urban residents accounted for only 2 percent of the global population as recently as 1800. In the past 200 years, however, the trend toward urbanization has increased dramatically, and with rapid globalization, it has accelerated at an unprecedented rate. Modern modes of transportation and communication have woven cities worldwide into a closely connected network. Today, about 3 billion people, about one-half of the world’s population, live in cities (Table 1). It is estimated that urbanization will accelerate even faster in the future. By 2030, urban residents are expected to number about 5 billion people, or 60 percent of the total world population (UN-Habitat, 2001).

TABLE 1 Urbanization of the World

Year

Number of Urban Residents

Percentage of Population

1900

160 million

10%

2000

2.5 billion

42%

2006

3.2 billion

50%

Year

Metropolises >1 million

Megalopolises > 10 million

1950

34

1995

214

2003

325

20

 

Source: UN-Habitat, 2001.



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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium Clean Air and the Electrification of Urban Transportation LUGUANG YAN XUHUI WEN Institute of Electrical Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences Although cities have been around for at least 5,000 years, urban residents accounted for only 2 percent of the global population as recently as 1800. In the past 200 years, however, the trend toward urbanization has increased dramatically, and with rapid globalization, it has accelerated at an unprecedented rate. Modern modes of transportation and communication have woven cities worldwide into a closely connected network. Today, about 3 billion people, about one-half of the world’s population, live in cities (Table 1). It is estimated that urbanization will accelerate even faster in the future. By 2030, urban residents are expected to number about 5 billion people, or 60 percent of the total world population (UN-Habitat, 2001). TABLE 1 Urbanization of the World Year Number of Urban Residents Percentage of Population 1900 160 million 10% 2000 2.5 billion 42% 2006 3.2 billion 50% Year Metropolises >1 million Megalopolises > 10 million 1950 34 – 1995 214 – 2003 325 20   Source: UN-Habitat, 2001.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium Developing countries are urbanizing much faster than developed countries, and the most economically underdeveloped countries are urbanizing fastest of all. By 2020, about one-half of the population of industrializing countries will live in cities and towns, and by 2030 the number of urban residents will increase from the current 1.9 billion to 3.9 billion (UN-Habitat, 2001). This will pose enormous challenges for those countries. URBANIZATION IN CHINA Although the Chinese have been constructing cities for more than 4,000 years, China had only 86 cities in 1949 when the People’s Republic of China was established. At that time, the urbanization level in China was only 10.6 percent, compared with the world average of 29 percent and the average in developed European countries and the United States of more than 60 percent. The urbanization process in China can be divided roughly into four stages (Table 2). China is now in a new stage of urban development. At present, China has 668 cities, including 32 megalopolises with more than 1 million residents and 43 metropolises with 0.5 to 1 million residents. In addition, China has 16,992 towns. The total number of residents in cities and towns is more than 349 million, about 30.4 percent of the population. It is estimated that the people who live in metropolises will constitute the majority of urban residents in the future. By 2010, China will have nearly 100 metropolises with more than 0.5 million residents each, a total of 150 million people. Included in this number are more than 40 megalopolises with more than 1 million residents each, a total of about 100 million people. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS The trends in urbanization in China in the twenty-first century are summarized below: The development of metropolises and megalopolises will continue. Regional city agglomerations will develop rapidly, driven by multiple central cities. The number of medium-sized cities will increase. Small towns will develop, and, as they do, urban and rural areas will become integrated. Tertiary metropolitan industries will develop into leading industries that prop up the national economy. Medium-sized and small cities, particularly small towns, will continue industrializing, focusing on traditional, labor-intensive manufacturing industries. Strategies for sustainable development will impose strict requirements for urban construction.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium TABLE 2 Stages of Urbanization in China Year Stage of Urbanization Situation Number of Cities Urban Populations and Level of Urbanization 1949 to 1957 Restoration Until 1952, China reconstructed old city quarters, rectified urban social orders, and intensified urban production. By the end of 1957, China had set up 11 new cities and was promoting urbanization. 176 (1957) 99.5 million, 15.4 percent of the total population 1957 to 1965 Major fluctuations As a result of policy mistakes, worsening Sino-Soviet relations, and severe natural disasters in three successive years, urbanization dropped. As of June 1963, China had lost 26 million urban residents.   Falls to 14 percent in 1964 1966 to 1978 Stagnation During the 10 years of the Cultural Revolution, especially in 1969, the urbanization level dropped dramatically to 12.2 percent (the 1952 level). 193 (1978) 170 million, 17.9 percent of the total population 1979 to 2002 Steady development Since 1978, China has gradually implemented urban reforms. Since 1984, economic reforms focusing on cities have accelerated development of cities and towns. 668 (1998) 349 million, 30.4 percent of the population

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium Between now and 2020, China is likely to encounter a grim situation because of its excessively large rural population. In periods of economic shortfall, increases in farm output lead to higher incomes for farmers, but when markets become glutted, increases in farm output result in uncertain incomes for farmers. Surplus markets in developed countries are generally saturated when per capita gross domestic product (GDP) reaches US$4,000. However, China’s markets will be glutted, which will cause the prices of farm products to fall, when per capita GDP reaches only about US$800. Therefore, China must vigorously boost the urbanization process and accelerate the development of city agglomerations around metropolises and megalopolises. In addition, China must promote the development of small and medium-sized cities and small towns. However, rather than just focusing on quantity-based expansion, the priority must be on moderate expansion, highlighting particular features, improved quality, and comprehensive development. Only in this way can China realize its objective of 60 percent urbanization, essentially reversing the proportions of urban and rural populations by 2020. In some cases, farmers’ incomes will fall because of rising production costs. POLLUTION FROM MOTOR VEHICLES The Challenge of Urban Traffic China is a developing country with a rapidly growing economy and rapid urbanization that is constantly expanding city limits and dramatically increasing urban populations. Urban residents are spending more and more time in transit and traveling longer and longer distances. Rapid urbanization naturally leads to a rapid increase in vehicle ownership. According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China (2001), the number of motor vehicles (excluding military vehicles) on the Chinese mainland increased tenfold, from 1.8 million in 1980 to 18 million in 2001. Figure 1 shows the increase in motor vehicles on the mainland in the past 22 years. It is estimated that China will have about 25 million vehicles in 2005, a 10 percent average annual increase. Of these, about 8.5 million will be cars, 34 percent of the total. If the current trend continues, urban areas of China will have 14 million cars in 2010, 10 million of them in metropolises. According to statistics from the Beijing Municipal Traffic Control Bureau, as of August 4, 2003, Beijing had more than 2 million vehicles, including 1.3 million private vehicles. If the current trend continues, car ownership in Beijing will catch up with ownership in other world metropolises, such as Tokyo and New York, in a few years. However, the inhabitants of Tokyo do not suffer much from traffic jams, even though there are 4 million cars in the city. By contrast, traffic in Beijing is disastrous and sometimes poses grave problems for the city. For example, the speed of buses in Beijing has fallen from 16.7 km/h in 1994 to 9.2 km/h. At peak hours each day, nearly one-fifth of intersections and

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 1 Increase in the number of motor vehicles on the Chinese mainland (excluding military vehicles), 1980–2001. Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2001. some sections of streets are choked with traffic, and cars proceed at a speed of 5 km/h. The same is true in some other cities in China. Bicycles continue to serve as the basic mode of transportation for millions of Chinese people. China has 450 million bicycles.1 Beijing alone has 9.28 million bicycles, 32 percent of which are used frequently. According to a recent survey on traffic, bicycles seriously interfere with the flow of vehicle traffic because they move slowly, occupy roads for a fairly long time, and prevent vehicles from speeding up quickly. Mixed traffic, particularly a mix of cars and bicycles, is a distinct feature of urban traffic conditions in China. Impacts on Natural Resources Rapid urbanization and the increase in the number of cars have led to significant shortages of oil and serious environmental pollution. China does have oil 1   This is approximately four times the number of bicycles in the United States, roughly the same number per capita. The nature of bicycle use, particularly the frequency, is the distinguishing factor between the two countries.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 2 Oil imports in China, 1995–2002. Source: Customs General Administration, 2002. resources. However, the ~20 billion barrels of oil account for only ~2 percent of current proven world reserves; China’s oil production amounts to ~4.5 percent of total world output (EIA, 2004). Since 1993, China has gone from being a net exporter of oil to a net importer of oil. Figure 2 shows the change in China’s oil-import status from 1995 to 2002. Because domestic oil production is increasing slowly and the demand for oil is increasing rapidly, China’s importation of oil can be expected to increase rapidly for the next 10 years. It is estimated that China will need 280 million tons of oil in 2005 and 360 million tons in 2010. For those years, China’s domestic oil output will be 178 million tons and 189 million tons, respectively. China will, therefore, require net oil imports of 102 million tons and 171 million tons in 2005 and 2010, accounting for 36 percent and 48 percent of oil consumption, respectively. By 2020, China will consume 430 million tons of oil, requiring annual imports of 270 million tons of oil. Motor vehicle fuels will make up an increasing proportion of China’s oil requirements. At present, vehicle gasoline accounts for one-third of total gasoline consumption in the country. Although the government expects to develop

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium alternative energy sources, particularly clean energy from coal gas and liquefied petroleum gas, growing oil demand will lead to many uncertainties in the development of the automobile industry in China. Impact on the Environment Scientific analysis shows that vehicle exhaust gas contains hundreds of compounds, including contaminants, such as solid suspended particles, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, lead, and sulfur-oxide compounds. According to some studies, vehicle tail gas accounts for 85 percent of air pollution on the Chinese mainland (Table 3). Pollutants in vehicle exhaust gases can cause serious damage to people’s health. Carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin in human blood about 250 times faster than oxygen. Thus, people who inhale even a small volume of carbon monoxide are likely to suffer from severe anoxia. People exposed to small amounts feel dizzy and have headaches; people exposed to larger amounts can suffer permanent damage to brain cells. Oxides of nitrogen and hydrogen peroxide cause stimulus responses in susceptible people who suffer from ophthalmic diseases and laryngitis. Hydrocarbons from vehicle tailpipe emissions contain benzopyrene, a carcinogenic substance that forms particles that may be suspended in air for many days and, when inhaled, cannot be eliminated from the human body. If these substances accumulate in the lungs, they can cause cancer. In addition to polluting the air, vehicles cause noise pollution. In 2001, traffic noise accounted for 20.1 percent of the overall environmental noise in the country. In districts with concentrated vehicle ownership, noise pollution is far TABLE 3 Pollution from Vehicle Exhaust Gas City Pollution Beijing (downtown areas) Sulfur dioxide is 10–15 percent over the daily limit. Carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen are 60–70 percent over the daily limit. In extreme cases, air pollution is one to three times the national Grade II standard level. Shanghai Vehicle emissions of hydrocarbon account for more than 56 percent of total. Nitrogen fluoride is 20 percent above the limit. Sichuan Province Vehicles annually discharge 1.42 million tons of carbon monoxide and more than 600,000 tons of other pollutants. Vehicles contribute 80 percent of carbon monoxide and 90 percent of hydrocarbons.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium higher. Vehicles also cause pollution through vibration and electromagnetic interference. Some characteristics of vehicular pollution make it especially difficult to address: Because vehicles move around, the pollution source also moves, appearing mainly in downtown areas, factories, mines, government organizations, hospitals, and schools, where the population density is high. Vehicles can be considered “mobile chimneys” on the roads. Pollution from vehicles proliferates in belts rather than in points. Pollution density features periodical changes, keeping pace with people’s activities; therefore, the most serious pollution occurs at peak traffic hours, when the concentration of people in urban areas is highest. Because it is much more difficult to shut down a street than a factory, it is difficult to stabilize the level of pollution. ELECTRIFICATION OF TRANSPORTATION The overall goals of clean energy and environmental protection are accepted by everyone, and the general trend is to work toward the development of vehicles that are pollution free, noiseless, and consume no petroleum. Many countries have implemented policies that advocate diversified energy sources to decrease reliance on petroleum and reduce oil consumption. Electric power can be generated from mineral resources (such as coal and natural gas), hydropower, wind power, tidal power, geothermal power, and nuclear power. As a result, electric power can save oil resources that are in comparatively short supply. Electric-power-driven vehicles have the benefit of high efficiency and zero pollution at point of use. Thus, electrification is a rational choice for future development. At present, China has selected (1) electric vehicles, (2) electric rail traffic, (3) increased rail speed, and (4) the magnetic-levitation (maglev) trains as key development projects to address traffic, energy consumption, and pollution problems. Electric Rail Systems The most direct method of relieving urban traffic jams is to increase overall road capacity. However, metropolises generally do not have much space for new roads, so the traditional practice of new road construction to accommodate increasing numbers of vehicles is very ineffective. Urban electric rail systems take up little space and transport large numbers of passengers quickly. To date, the most widely used modes of electric rail traffic are metros (subways), suburban railways, and light-rail railways; these systems are the mainstays of passenger transport in many metropolises in the world.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium China must clarify its policy toward the development of high-speed electric rail traffic, the most effective way to address traffic problems in big cities. In developing its urban electric rail traffic, China must give equal attention to above-ground and underground systems, connecting urban and suburban rail systems, and harmonizing rail traffic and other modes of transportation to create comprehensive, multifunctional, diversified city traffic systems based on rail traffic. Electric Buses and Electric Bicycles Various countries, particularly Western countries, are encouraging the development of electric cars to replace oil-based fuels with electric power. The Chinese government is also promoting the development of electric cars. In 1992, the development of electric cars was one of the key technological programs in the Eighth Five-Year Plan. But electric buses are ideal candidates for addressing urban traffic problems for the reasons outlined below: Considering current prices and the limited functionality of electric batteries, electric cars are not likely to satisfy the demands of private car owners in the immediate future. Electric buses can recharge batteries at times when it might be inconvenient for private owners to do so. Most large-scale bus lines can maintain buses by themselves, which eliminates the need for after-sale services. Bus-line purchasers generally figure vehicle costs on the basis of the lifetime of the bus, rather than simply first costs. This is an important element in comparing the economic benefits of electric vehicles and traditional fuel-based vehicles. Bus-line management can be encouraged to set socially and environmentally beneficial missions. Electric buses require a much smaller investment than electric rail systems. Electric buses can work efficiently in current urban environments. As electric vehicle technologies and infrastructure systems mature, electric buses will inevitably replace traditional buses. Because electric buses cause no local air pollution and very little noise pollution and require low per-passenger energy consumption, they should become a major mode of urban transportation. At present, electric vehicles are included in the “863” program of the Tenth Five-Year Plan, the main objectives of which are “industrialization of pure electric-driven vehicles, production in small batches of vehicles with mixed powers, and production of sample vehicles with fuel cells.” Therefore, as electric bus technologies develop, electric cars will naturally eventually be used as well.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium Electricity-driven bicycles will increase speed and reduce the physical burden on riders while maintaining the traditional advantages of bicycles—convenience and pollution-free transport. Electric bicycles will eventually become a favorite of urban residents for daily, short-distance transportation. High-Speed, Magnetic-Levitation Trains Modern metropolises generally have close connections with other large cities; they may also have one or more satellite cities. To provide transportation between cities and increase railway speed, China is also considering developing high-speed magnetic-levitation (maglev) trains. Maglev trains have several benefits: high speed; short acceleration time; strong capacity to climb slopes; and rapid braking. They are also very quiet and thus are ideal for intercity transportation. A maglev train system would greatly improve the efficiency of transportation among city agglomerations. PROSPECTS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN CHINA China has been working to develop electric vehicles for many years. From 1991 to 1995, the former State Science and Technology Commission and State Planning Commission included the development of electric vehicles in the Eighth Five-Year Plan. Tsinghua University and Tianjin Automotive Industry Company participated in government-sponsored research to develop a battery-powered, medium-sized bus and minicar. Studies have also been conducted on technologies for a sodium-sulfur battery, lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet DC motor drive. Some of the research results are being used in electric buses on the campus of Tsinghua University. From 1996 to 2000, the State Science and Technology Commission carried out an Electric Vehicle Technology Industrial Project and a Fuel-Cell Technology Project. The results laid a solid foundation for the development of electric vehicles in China. For example, Dongfeng Automobile, together with the Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, developed a concept electric sedan in 2000 (Figure 3). Lighter weight and with little wind resistance, the car had a digital, vector-controlled AC motor powered by a nickel-metal-hydride battery package. (Investigations were also made into lithium batteries.) A breakthrough was made in the development of a proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell for electric vehicles, and a 30 kilowatt (kW) fuel-cell system was installed in a lightweight bus in 2001 (Figure 4). Table 4 shows comparative data for the sedan and bus. Meanwhile, an electric vehicle demonstration zone in Shantou City has been built for exploring the infrastructure and operation of electric vehicles. Since 2001, when China entered the period of the Tenth Five-Year Plan, the Ministry of Science and Technology (formerly State Science and Technology

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 3 Battery-powered concept sedan, 2000. FIGURE 4 Lightweight, fuel-cell-powered bus, 2001. TABLE 4 Data for the Battery-Powered Concept Sedan and the Lightweight, Fuel-Cell-Powered Bus   Maximum Speed Maximum Climbing Acceleration Time Battery-powered conceptual sedan 114 km/h 20% 9.58 sec (0–50 km/h) Lightweight, fuel-cell powered bus 60.6 km/h 18% 24 sec (0–40 km/h)

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium Commission) has included electric vehicle technology development as one of the “863” National High-Tech Special Projects. In five years, the country will have invested 880 million yuan in the development of electric vehicles and related technologies. Under the program, China will promote electric vehicle integration technologies, with a focus on batteries and fuel-cell engines, transmissions, and multi-energy source control for hybrid vehicles. Battery-powered electric vehicles will be developed for commercial operation in specific regions; hybrid electric vehicles will be targeted for small-batch production; and prototypes of fuel-cell vehicles will be produced. With investments from the central government and local governments and the participation of a number of business enterprises, some important achievements were made in the first stage of the special project in 2002: Fuel-cell-powered engines were produced—30 kW for cars and 50 kW for buses. The system provides integrated, automated control of the various components (air supply, hydrogen supply, cooling, etc.). Progress was made on the development of a nickel-metal-hydride battery and a lithium battery (Table 5). AC motor drive systems provide power rated from 10 kW to 160 kW and maximum power density of 1.3 kW/kg, satisfying the requirements in terms of drive function and performance. Basic achievements have been made in multi-energy management technology for electric vehicles. Functional vehicles, including electric, hybrid-electric, and fuel-cell-powered cars and buses, have been successfully developed. It is expected that by 2005, fuel-cell engines will be fairly well optimized to meet the power rating and system automation level requirements; significant efforts will still be necessary to improve power density. Prospects for using the high-power-density nickel-metal-hydride battery are good; the remaining TABLE 5 Performance of Nickel-Metal-Hydride and Lithium Batteriesa Battery Nickel-Metal-Hydride Lithium   Domesticb Global Domesticb Global Energy density (Wh/kg) 65 ~60–80 131 ~100–150 Power density (W/kg) 680 ~900–1,000 951 ~1,500 aNickel-metal-hydride batteries are better than lithium batteries in terms of life cycle, single-cell consistency, and security. bThe domestic data refer to a single cell.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium problems are mostly related to costs. Lithium batteries will be used first for electric motorcycles, which require less power and energy, to explore the market. Research and development (R&D) on digital AC drive systems will be completed in this stage. The next tasks for motor drive technology will focus on products and markets; research will continue on improving efficiency, lowering costs, and increasing power density. China is a major producer of rare earth materials, so considerable attention will be given to uses for permanent-magnet synchronous motors. China will have the ability to produce small batches of hybrid electric vehicles and fuel-cell electric vehicle prototypes in 2005. However, electric vehicle industrialization and further commercialization will require government policy and legislative support. At present, we are not in a position to estimate the trends in electric vehicles in the overall Chinese auto industry. HIGH-SPEED, MAGNETIC-LEVITATION TRAINS The high-speed maglev train, developed in the second half of the twentieth century, is levitated by electromagnetic force. A long-stator, synchronous, linear motor drives the train at high speed. The train has no contact with the tracks and thus is not subject to the limitations of traditional wheel-track trains. The maglev train is currently the only land passenger transport with operating speeds of up to 500 km/h. It is expected that the maglev will be put into practical operation toward the middle of the twenty-first century. The maglev train system is best suited for long-distance, high-speed, intermetropolis transportation with large passenger volumes and will be competitive with air travel between large cities. It has the advantages of burning no fossil fuel, causing minimal pollution, and providing a safe, comfortable, economical, and reliable ride. China began to develop the key technologies for a maglev train system in the late 1980s. The Railway Academy, Southwest Jiaotong University, National Defense Science and Technology University, and the Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences conducted the work and successfully developed some test vehicles (Figures 5–7). In June 1998 at a joint conference of academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering, Premier Zhu Rongji raised the question of using advanced maglev technologies in the construction of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway. That discussion accelerated research into and discussion of a national development strategy for a high-speed maglev train system. Taking into account the considerable gap between technical levels in China and the rest of the world, as well as the actual demands in China, a five-stage strategy was proposed: (1) study the need for the maglev train; (2) import technologies to construct a test operation line; (3) research and study the feasibility of long-distance lines and their application and establish an R&D team in China; (4) construct a long-distance line to realize a practical and industrialized

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 5 Six-ton, single-bogie truck maglev train developed primarily by Railway Academy. FIGURE 6 Low-speed maglev train developed by Southwest Jiaotong University. operation; and (5) gradually increase maglev trains in high-speed passenger transport networks. After considerable effort in recent years, China has made significant progress in developing the maglev train system. China plans to build a nearly 8,000 km, high-speed passenger transport network in the first half of the twenty-first century, and the maglev train system is the best candidate. Work began on a test line in the winter of 1999; in the summer of 2000, China decided to cooperate with Germany in constructing a 30 km maglev train

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 7 Badaling tourism demonstration maglev train developed by National Defense Science and Technology University. FIGURE 8 The Shanghai maglev train, Transrapid, in operation (430 km/h speed). demonstration line from Pudong Airport to the urban area of Shanghai. The project officially started in March 2001 but was launched at a ceremony on December 31, 2002. After 22 months of construction, the first operating maglev train line was opened with a design speed of 430 km/h (Figure 8). Construction of the Shanghai maglev line has accomplished several goals: It proved that a high-speed maglev train can run at a speed of more 400 km/h safely and reliably and that the technologies are mature enough for practical operation.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium The amazingly high speed of the system demonstrates that related technologies can be developed and mastered. It established the test base in China for R&D on high-speed maglev technologies. It brought together Chinese engineering, construction, and R&D teams. It enhanced Sino-German cooperation. In addition, the construction of the Shanghai line demonstrated that the high-speed maglev train and the high-speed wheel-track train are both feasible candidates for the Beijing-Shanghai railway line. The next important task in the development of the high-speed maglev train is to persuade the government to use the maglev system for the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed line, for the following reasons: The high-speed maglev system is designed primarily for long-distance, intermetropolis, high-speed passenger transportation with heavy passenger volume. The Beijing-Shanghai line stretches 1,300 km. High-speed wheel-track transportation cannot compete with air travel in terms of travel time, but the high-speed maglev train system could connect the two cities in only three hours. Because of China’s vast territory, large population, and short supply of oil resources, it is important that China develop new rail technologies. If the Beijing-Shanghai line adopts the maglev system, it will make maglev a leading technology in China’s transportation system and will demonstrate China’s success in developing new technologies. The adoption of the maglev system would stimulate industrialization of the total system and cultivate related high-tech industries. The maglev system produces little noise, consumes little energy, and demonstrates high performance in acceleration and deceleration. The maglev system could eventually be used for relatively shorter distances, including connections between multiple cities and intrametropolis traffic lines. But “industrialization” is normally a precondition for promotion and popularization of a new technology. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES Customs General Administration. 2002. China’s Customs Statistics (1995–2002). Beijing: Customs General Administration People’s Republic of China. EIA (Energy Information Administration). 2004. International Energy Annual 2002. Available online at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iea2002/table81.xls and http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/tableg2.xls (accessed 7/22/04). National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2001. China Statistical Yearbook 1981–2001. Available online at: http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/.

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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium UN-Habitat (United Nations Center for Human Settlements [Habitat]). 2001. State of the World’s Cities Report 2001. HS/619/01E. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-Habitat. Wen, X., Z. Xu, G. Hu, Q. Zhang, G. Ma, and L. Zeng. 2001. Research on the Electric System of the PEMFC Test Minibus. In Proceedings of EVS-18 Symposium, Berlin, Germany, October 20–24, 2001. Yan, L. 2000. China needs high-speed magnetically levitated train. Chinese Engineering Science 2(5): 8–13. Yan, L., S. Xu, G. Su, Y. Dai, R. Zhang, and Y. Wu. 2002. Strategic progress of high-speed maglev and the development strategy in China (I). Advanced Technology of Electrical Engineering and Energy 21(4): 1–12. Yan, L., S. Xu, G. Su, Y. Dai, R. Zhang, and Y. Wu. 2002. Strategic progress of high-speed maglev and the development strategy in China. Advanced Technology of Electrical Engineering and Energy 22(1): 1–8.

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