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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium Rational Options for Clean Energy in Chinese Cities WEITANG FAN China Energy Research Society ZHUFENG YU Clean Coal Engineering and Research Center Although renewable energy technologies are making rapid progress in the world, 20 to 30 years hence, coal, oil, and natural gas will still be the primary sources of energy in China. The proven recoverable reserves of fossil fuels in the world are shown in Table 1. China ranks third in coal reserves, eleventh in oil reserves, and nineteenth in natural gas reserves. Thus, coal is much more abundant than other fossil fuels in China; proven recoverable reserves of coal amount to 114.5 billion tons, more than 10 times the total reserves of currently proven oil and natural gas reserves, based on equivalent calorific values. MIX OF PRIMARY-ENERGY SOURCES IN CHINA In the past 20 years, China’s economy has grown at a rate of more than 7 percent annually, and the consumption of primary energy has increased every TABLE 1 Proven Recoverable Reserves of Fossil Fuels in the World, 2002 World China United States Quantity Percentage Quantity Percentage Coal (109t) 9,405 1,145 12.2 2,450 26.1 Oil (109t) 1,427 25 1.8 38 2.7 Natural gas (1012m3) 155.8 1.51 0.97 5.19 3.3 Source: CERS, 2003.
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 1 Energy consumption in China in the past 20 years. Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2003. FIGURE 2 Consumption mix of primary energy in the world in 2001. Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2003. year (Figure 1). Fossil energy accounts for 86.9 percent of primary-energy consumption in the world, the highest proportion of which is from oil (38.5 percent). In China, however, the proportion of fossil fuels is 93.1 percent, the highest proportion of which is from coal (67 percent), 42.3 percent higher than the world average (National Bureau of Statistics, 2003). Consumption of oil and natural gas in China is 36.1 percent lower than in the rest of the world (Figures 2 and 3). MIX OF END-USE-ENERGY SOURCES Oil constitutes about 50 percent of the mix of end-use-energy sources consumed in the world. Natural gas and electric power constitute ~ 18 percent each, and coal constitutes 9 percent (Figure 4). In China, coal accounts for 44 percent,
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 3 Consumption mix of primary energy in China in 2001. Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2003. FIGURE 4 Consumption mix of end energy in the world in 2001. Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2003. oil 33 percent, and electric power 16 percent (Figure 5). Thus, the proportion of coal in the end-use-energy mix is 35 percent higher in China than in the rest of the world, and the proportion of oil and natural gas is 32 percent lower than in the rest of the world. EMISSIONS Particulates In recent years, as a result of strengthened regulatory control of particulate emissions, 85.2 percent of power stations in China have installed electrostatic
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 5 Consumption mix of end energy in China in 2001. Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2003. FIGURE 6 Particulate emissions, 1995–2002. Source: SEPA, 2003a. precipitators. This has led to a marked decrease in total dust emissions (Figure 6). Fine particulates (PM10), however, are still a major pollutant in urban areas, especially in cities in northern China (SEPA, 2003a). Sulfur Dioxide China has also strengthened its regulatory control of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. All new power plants that use coal with sulfur content of greater than 1 percent are now required to install desulfurization units; the rest are required to
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 7 SO2 emissions, 1995–2002. Source: SEPA, 2003. TABLE 2 Annual Mean Concentrations of SO2 Emissions in Chinese Cities (mg/m3) 1995 1996 1997 1998 National 0.080 0.079 0.066 0.056 Northern cities 0.081 0.083 0.072 – Southern cities 0.080 0.076 0.060 – Source: SEPA, 2003. use low-sulfur coal. As a result, SO2 emissions have been steadily reduced (Figure 7 and Table 2). In 2001, 33.4 percent of the 341 cities monitored met or exceeded the national secondary standard for air quality (daily mean ambient concentrations of SO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and total suspended particles (TSP) of less than 0.15, 0.08, and 0.30 mg/m3, respectively), and 33.2 percent failed to meet the national tertiary standard of air quality (daily mean concentrations of SO2, NOx, and TSP less than 0.25, 0.15, and 0.50 mg/m3, respectively). Acid rain was evident in 161 cities (SEPA, 2003b). Nitrogen Oxide Emissions in Cities In 1999, the government initiated a Clean Vehicle Action Campaign, and all new power stations with an installed capacity of more than 300 megawatts (MW) were required to install low-NOx burners (Yu et al., 2004a). In recent years, the annual average concentration of NOx emissions has remained stable, and in some
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium TABLE 3 Annual Mean NOx Emission Concentrations in Chinese Cities (mg/m3) 1995 1996 1997 1998 Mean values 0.047 0.047 0.045 0.037 Source: SEPA, 2003a. places has even decreased slightly, even though the number of automobiles has increased significantly (Table 3). PROBLEMS IN CHINESE CITIES Low Energy Efficiency The average energy efficiency in China is about 34 percent, about 10 percent lower than in European Union (EU) countries (Zhou and Wang, 2002). Low energy efficiency is apparent in mine-mouth power generation and domestic coal consumption. Coal-Fired Power Generation In 2000, the total production of electric energy in China was 1,350 terawatt hours (TWh). The average coal consumption for power generation was 390 gram coal equivalent per kilowatt hour (gce/kWh), 70 gce/kWh more than the world’s most efficient power plants would consume (Editorial Board of China, 2003). Thus, in 2000, China consumed an extra 94 million tons of coal equivalent (Mtce) for power generation, the equivalent of about 132 million tons (Mt) of coal. Industrial Boilers There are about half a million industrial boilers in China with an average capacity of 2.5 tons per hour (t/h) and an average efficiency of 60 percent, 20 percent lower than the global average. Emissions from industrial boilers are higher than from power station boilers in almost half of Chinese cities. Thus, industrial boilers are the primary sources of pollution in many cities (Yu et al., 2004b). Industrial Energy Consumption The consumption per unit energy for industrial energy in China is 30 to 50 percent higher than in the world’s most highly industrialized countries. In
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium 2000, energy consumption per ton of crude steel in large and medium-sized iron and steel enterprises and the overall energy consumption of cement producers in China, were 18.6 percent and 54.4 percent higher, respectively, than in Japan (CERS, 2003). There is great potential for energy conservation in these areas. Coal for Domestic Use The efficiency of direct coal combustion for domestic use is very low, in some cases less than 20 percent. This is another area where great improvements can be made. Slow Development and Dissemination of Clean-Coal Technologies The energy technologies in many small and medium-sized facilities in China are out of date. In recent years, the state has promoted efficient, clean-combustion technology, clean-conversion technology, and new and renewable energy technology. Nevertheless, the development and use of these technologies has been limited. Availability and Economics of Energy Sources Table 4 shows energy prices in the United States in 1999, where the price ratio among coal, natural gas, gasoline, and electric power (equivalent calorific value) was approximately 1:3:8:16. The major factors that influence the selection of energy sources and clean energy technologies are energy availability, environment, and economics. One of the problems in China is the uneven distribution of energy sources. Seventy-seven percent of coal resources are in the north, in the area of the Qinling Mountains and the Huai River; 85 percent of oil resources are in the area north of the Yangtze River; 82.5 percent of water resources are in the western part of China, two-thirds of it concentrated in the southwest (Liu, 2002). However, energy is consumed mainly in eastern and central China. Because of TABLE 4 Energy Price Forecast in the United States, 1999–2020 (average price for all customers in 1999 U.S. dollars per MBtu) 1999 2005 2010 2015 2020 Coal 1.23 1.15 1.07 1.03 1.00 Natural gas 4.05 4.24 4.27 4.28 4.50 Liquid petroleum gas 8.84 8.84 8.88 8.58 8.26 Gasoline 9.45 10.64 10.93 10.75 10.68 Alcohol 14.42 19.12 19.00 19.24 19.36 Electric power 19.50 18.15 17.20 17.30 17.59 Source: CEPA, 2003.
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium the disproportional distribution of resources, coal has to be transported from north to south and from west to east in China. Currently, China is undertaking projects involving the transmission of electric power and gas from west to east. Environmental requirements, energy availability, and energy prices vary greatly from city to city. Table 5 shows these variations for Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing. Beijing, the capital of China, which will be the host city for the TABLE 5 Energy Availability and Economics in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chongqing Beijing Shanghai Chongqing Capital of China. Host city of Olympic Games in 2008. Depends on other provinces for most of its energy. A major energy-consuming city. Depends mainly on other provinces and is remote from energy- Important energy-producing sites. consuming city that produces high-sulfur coal, natural gas, and hydropower. Available energy sources Oil products, natural gas, coal, and some renewable energy. Oil products, natural gas, and coal. Oil products, natural gas, coal, hydropower, and methane. Price of major energy sources Coal (5,000 kcal/kg) About 260 yuan/t About 380 yuan/t 120 yuan/t (indigenous high-sulfur coal). More than 300 yuan/t (from other provinces). Natural gas (8,450 kcal/m3) 1.8 yuan/m3 1.8 yuan/m3 1.2 yuan/m3 Heavy oil (10,000 kcal/kg) 1,500 yuan/t 1,500 yuan/t 1,500 yuan/t Light oil 2,200 yuan/t 2,200 yuan/t 2,200 yuan/t Energy prices at equivalent calorific value Natural gas > oils. Heavy oil > coal. (Natural gas nearly four times price of coal.) Natural gas > oils. Heavy oil > coal. (Natural gas more than three times price of coal.) Oils and heavy oil > natural gas > coal. Source: China Energy Office, 2003; China Energy Online, 2003.
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium Olympic Games in 2008, will use natural gas as much as possible to guarantee good air quality for that event. The consumption of natural gas in Beijing is expected to increase from 1 billion m3 in 2000 to 6 billion m3 in 2008. Shanghai is expected to use a mix of energy resources. In addition to increasing the amount of natural gas it uses, Shanghai is devoting great efforts to the development of clean-coal technologies, such as supercritical power generation technology. Chongqing will use natural gas and hydropower as much as possible. At the same time, the proportion of electricity and heat converted from coal in Chongqing will increase. However, the proportion of coal in the mix of end-use energy will drop from 64.6 percent in 2000 to less than 50 percent in 2010 (Clean Energy Office, 2003). CLEAN-ENERGY SOURCES At present, less than half of the coal produced in China is used for power generation; in the United States, the proportion is more than 90 percent (Table 6); in EU countries it is 80.4 percent (CERS, 2002). From 1996 to 2000, the installed capacity of power-generating units in China increased from 236.54 GW to 319.32 GW, with an annual growth rate of about 8 percent. During those years, coal-fired power generation accounted for 78 percent of total power generation (National Bureau of Statistics, 2003). Advanced Power-Generation Technology Because the proportion of coal used for power generation in China is expected to increase significantly, the development of advanced power-generation technology is very important because it will reduce the amount of coal consumed, improve generation efficiency, improve the environment, and reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). At present, the focus is on supercritical and ultra-supercritical generating units, which have been used successfully in other countries (Yu et al., 2004a). With the development of desulfurization and denitrogenation technologies and decreases in operating costs, this technology is now fairly competitive. TABLE 6 Coal-Consumption Mix in China and the United States, 2000 China United States Power generation 43.9 % 90.8 % Coking 12.0 % 2.7 % Industries and miscellaneous use 37.8 % 6.0 % Domestic and commercial use 6.3 % 0.5 % Source: CERS, 2002.
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium Technologies for Retrofitting Industrial Boilers There are currently about half a million small and medium-sized industrial boilers in China that supply heat to industries and residences. Industrial boilers consume nearly one-third of coal production, and their total emissions equal, or even exceed, those of power-station boilers in some cities. Industrial boilers are not expected to be totally eliminated in the next 20 years in China. Therefore, it will be necessary to retrofit them (Yu and Chen, 2001). Currently, “retrofitting” usually means substituting clean fuels for coal; using washed coal (i.e., coal with a sulfur content of less than 0.6 percent); or using sulfur-capture briquettes or coal-water mixtures (CWM). Research has shown that the economics of coal-fired industrial boilers varies greatly with different fuels. In northern China, the operating cost ratio among washed coal, sulfur-capture briquettes, CWM, natural gas, light oil, and heavy oil is 1:1.2:1.5:3.1:3.9:2.3. Use of natural gas, light diesel, washed coal, briquettes, or CWM will all lower emissions to conform with the national environmental standard (CAE, 2001). Low-sulfur coal provides the optimal ratio of economic benefits to environmental benefits. If all industrial boilers in China used low-sulfur coal, about 51 Mt of coal would be saved each year. Chinese cities must choose technologies and fuels for industrial boilers in accordance with environmental requirements, energy resources, and economic capacities (Yu et al., 2004a). Combined Heat and Power Generation with Circulating Fluidized Boilers Combined heat and power generation (CHP) has comprehensive benefits, like energy savings, lower emissions, better heating quality, and increased peak-power-shaving capacity. Cogeneration plants in cities could replace a great number of scattered heating boilers and industrial boilers. CHP would ensure the heating supply in winter, would be beneficial for industry, could supply electric power to some residents, would effectively control air pollution, and would improve energy efficiency. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is developing rapidly in China. In the past 10 years, CFB boilers with capacities of up to 220 t/h have been commercialized. CFB boilers provide high-efficiency, low-pollution combustion and have the great advantage of operating with inferior fuels. In-bed desulfurization and low-temperature combustion effectively reduce emissions of SO2 and NOx, and CFB boilers used with power-generating units would guarantee clean CHP. Even though CFB technology requires a higher initial investment than other heating systems, the economic and environmental benefits can offset the expense. Calculations based on equivalent calorific values show that the operating cost ratio among CHP based on CFBs, gas-fired boilers, and oil-fired boilers is about 1:1.7:1.2 (Yu et al., 2004a).
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium ENERGY FOR COMMERCIAL AND DOMESTIC PURPOSES Table 7 shows a comparison of the energy sources for domestic consumption in China and the United States. Natural gas and electricity are the primary sources of domestic energy generation in the United States, whereas in China, coal is the main energy source. With rapid economic development and increasingly stringent environmental requirements, cities in China are increasing the proportion of clean-energy sources for domestic and commercial use as their economic capabilities and the availability of energy sources allow. In Beijing, Shanghai, and well developed coastal zones where environmental requirements are stringent, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG) are the main energy sources being considered for commercial and domestic purposes. For heating, natural-gas-fired boilers, CHP generation based on coal-fired boilers, and central heating will replace dispersed coal-fired boilers. In less developed areas and areas that lack clean-energy sources like natural gas, coal-fired CHP generation, central heating, and advanced industrial boilers that burn low-sulfur coal will be used for heating. Briquettes and coal-saving stoves, which will be the main modes of energy consumption for commercial and household purposes, are also being developed (Yu et al., 2004a). By the end of 2000, China had built 35.6 million square meters of energy-conserving buildings. But the technical standards for energy-saving buildings in China are about 50 years behind those of more highly industrialized countries. Therefore, compared with developed countries, the level of energy-saving technology in China is low. Energy consumption per unit of residential area for TABLE 7 Domestic Energy-Consumption Mix in China and the United States, 1999 China United States Consumption (Mtce) 106.4 368.1 Population (billion) 1.275 0.281 Mix (%) Natural gas 7.4 47.5 Liquid petroleum gas 14.2 4.5 Oils 3.5 9.4 Coal 51.4 0.4 Electric power 17.1 38.2 District heating 6.4 – Total 100.0 100.0 Source: CERS, 2002.
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium heating in northern China is three times the consumption in developed countries with similar climates (Wang, 2003). Thus, energy-saving design standards for buildings, improved building designs, new building materials, improved thermal isolation in buildings, and green lighting and cold-accumulation air conditioning could be extremely beneficial for China. China has comparatively abundant geothermal resources, which should be developed as quickly as possible for power generation, heating energy, industrial energy, and medical and other uses in cities where conditions are favorable. In 2000, the geothermal heating area covered 6 million square meters in Tianjin. Beijing already exploits 8.8 million square meters of geothermal water per annum, equivalent to 75,000 tons of coal. This has reduced dust emissions by 750 tons, SO2 emissions by 1,300 tons, and CO2 emissions by 34,000 tons per year, thus reducing air pollution and environmental damage (Clean Energy Office, 2003). Municipal Traffic In recent years, the number of vehicles in China has been increasing rapidly, causing severe tailpipe pollution in Chinese cities. NOx, fine particulates, and dust emissions in large cities like Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou exceed the national secondary standard. As the rate of urbanization increases, traffic density will also increase, and tailpipe pollution can be expected to worsen. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), a new transportation system, with costs comparable to those of an ordinary bus system and capacity roughly comparable to that of rail transport, was demonstrated in the city of Kunming during the 1999 International Horticultural Exposition. The Kunming Special Traffic Lane Demonstration Project was a joint project of Kunming and Zurich. The BRT system, which operates in a special traffic lane, features rapid boarding and de-boarding and a rapid ticket-purchasing system. Since 1999, the number of passengers transported daily has increased from 0.5 to 0.75 million, and BRT is now the hub of the municipal transit network. BRT has improved the flow of people and reduced the volume of traffic, thus decreasing tailpipe and noise pollution from vehicles (Municipal Planning Bureau of Kunming City, 2003). THE CLEAN ENERGY ACTION PLAN At the end of 2001, the Chinese government initiated the Clean Energy Action Plan to control air pollution caused by coal combustion. Eighteen pilot cities were chosen to promote clean-energy sources and clean-energy technologies. The first step in the plan was to assess the status of energy consumption and environmental pollution in the pilot cities. The results showed that in 2000, total consumption of primary energy was 207.6 Mtce, average consumption of
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 8 Primary energy consumption mix in 18 cities in (a) 2000 and (b) 2005 (estimated). Source: Clean Energy Office, 2003. primary energy per city was 11.5 Mtce, and average coal consumption per city was 7.7 Mtce. The proportion of coal consumption in 13 of the 18 cities was more than 60 percent. The average oil consumption per city was 2.3 Mtce; oil consumption in seven cities was more than 20 percent. The average natural gas consumption per city was 2.7 billion cubic meters; gas consumption in only two cities was more than 10 percent. Figure 8 shows the mix of primary energy consumed in the 18 cities in 2000 and 2005. In 2000, mean coal consumption was around 64 percent; oil and oil products accounted for 27 percent; and the total of natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, and wind power was about 9 percent. It is expected that by 2005, as a result of the implementation of clean-energy sources and clean-energy technologies, the consumption of coal for primary energy will be reduced to 60 percent, oil and oil products will increase to 29 percent, natural gas will increase to 5 percent, and hydropower, nuclear power, and wind energy will be about 6 percent. In 2000, the proportion of coal was more than 60 percent in six cities, in the range of 40 to 60 percent in six cities, and less than 40 percent in six cities; the national average was 38.9 percent. This very high consumption of coal contributed significantly to the atmospheric pollution in these cities. By 2005, the mix of end energy consumed will become cleaner, and air quality is expected to improve tremendously. Air Pollution The mean level of SO2 emissions in the 18 cities was 140,000 tons, and the daily mean concentration of SO2 emissions was 0.084 mg/m3; both were within the national secondary standard. The mean TSP emission was 65,000 tons, and the daily mean concentration of TSP was 0.39 mg/m3, exceeding the limit specified in the national secondary standard. Mean NOx emissions were 44,000 tons,
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium and the daily mean NOx emission concentration was 0.05 mg/m3, within the national secondary standard. It is expected that by 2005 the mean SO2 emission will be reduced to 110,000 tons in the 18 cities, and the daily mean concentration will be 0.062 mg/m3; the daily mean TSP emission concentration will be 0.22 mg/m3; NOx emissions will basically remain unchanged. All emission levels will meet the national secondary standard. CASE STUDY OF YINCHUAN MUNICIPALITY Yinchuan is the capital of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in western China. The total regional area is 3,500 km2; the urban area is ~1,300 km2. The total population is more than one million. The GDP value of the municipality in 2000 was 10.4 billion yuan. Mines that produce excellent quality coal are located on the periphery of the city. Natural gas from gas fields in Shaanxi, Gansu, and Ningxia provinces is transmitted by pipelines through Yinchuan City to eastern China. The mix of energy sources for Yinchuan in 2000 is shown in Table 8 and Figure 9. Yinchuan is also in the “high-quality luminous energy zone”; that is, the TABLE 8 Primary Energy-Consumption Mix in Yinchuan in 2000 Total consumption Coal Crude Oil Natural Gas Solar Energy Consumption (1,000 tce) 2,686.9 1,576.5 757.5 343.6 8.9 Proportion (%) 100 58.67 28.2 12.79 0.34 Source: Clean Energy Office, 2003. FIGURE 9 Consumption mix of end energy in Yinchuan in 2000. Source: Clean Energy Office, 2003.
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium TABLE 9 Air Pollution in Yinchuan (µg/m3) 1999 2000 2001 Mean annual TSP emission concentration 0.414 0.341 0.345 Mean annual SO2 emission concentration 0.089 0.054 0.049 Mean annual NOx emission concentration 0.044 0.036 0.032 Source: Clean Energy Office, 2003. annual mean of hours of sunshine is more than 3,000, making solar energy a promising prospect. TSP and SO2 emissions have been declining gradually in Yinchuan in recent years (Table 9). Currently, the main air pollutant is TSP; emissions in 2000 were 0.7 times higher than the limit specified in the national secondary standard. Emissions of SO2 and NOx were below the national secondary standard. The main cause of severe pollution was coal combustion for heating during the winter, when concentrations of the major pollutants, such as TSP and SO2, were high. From April to May and from November to December each year, strong winds bring blowing sand and dust, which causes seasonal high concentrations of TSP. Clean Energy Options Energy demand in Yinchuan is expected to be 3.7 Mtce in 2005 based on an average annual GDP growth rate of 9.5 percent and energy elastic coefficient of 0.31. The government’s goals for environmental quality in Yinchuan in 2005 are shown in Table 10 and Figure 10. Table 11 shows projected options for the mix of energy sources in Yinchuan based on these goals: Low option. Do not change the mix, and do not employ clean-coal technologies. Under this scenario, SO2 and particulate emissions would greatly exceed the emissions targets. TABLE 10 Emission-Control Targets in Yinchuan for 2005 (1,000 tce) SO2 Industrial Dusts Actual value in 2000 26.3 16.7 Target value in 2005 21 17.8 Source: Clean Energy Office, 2003.
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium FIGURE 10 Consumption mix of end energy in Yinchuan in 2005. Source: Clean Energy Office, 2003. TABLE 11 Options for Changing the Energy Consumption Mix in Yinchuan for 2005 High Option Medium Option Low Option Mix of End Energy (%) Coal 23.6 47.9 65.19 Natural gas 53.20 30.1 13.6 Oil 6.7 6.3 6.7 Heating energy 3.1 3.1 1.0 Electricity 13.1 12.2 13.1 Renewable energy 0.4 0.4 0.4 Air quality In compliance with standard In compliance with standard Exceeds standard SO2 (Mt) 1.81 2.1 5.03 Particulate (mg/m3) 0.33 0.86 1.25 Investment (billion yuan) 2.48 0.69 Share of GDP in 2005 16.5% 4.6% Source: Clean Energy Office, 2003. High option. Replace coal with natural gas for all domestic heating. This would effectively improve air quality in 2005, and emissions would not exceed the national secondary standard. However, this option would require an investment of 2.48 billion yuan, or about 16.5 percent of GDP of Yinchuan City. In addition, annual operating costs would increase by 100 million yuan, which is unacceptable.
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium Medium option. This option has been accepted for implementation. Clean energy will be substituted and clean energy technologies developed to meet the environmental targets for 2005. Six projects are planned: (1) substitution of natural gas for coal for domestic energy; (2) use of electricity instead of coal for some household cooking; (3) expansion of thermal power plants into CHP plants; (4) burning of low-sulfur coal instead of raw coal in industrial boilers; (5) equipping of industrial boilers above 6 t/h with desulfurization and flue-dust cleanup units; and (6) use of dual fuels (oil and gas) in automobiles. Implementing the medium option will improve the end-energy sources substantially. Emissions of SO2 will be reduced by 28,000 tons, and emissions of particulates will be reduced by 15,000 tons, which will satisfy both national and Ningxia environmental standards. The total investment will be 690 million yuan, or 4.6 percent of Yinchuan’s GDP in 2005 (Clean Energy Office, 2003). CONCLUSION As the case study of Yinchuan municipality shows, meeting ideal environmental standards for Chinese cities is not practical in the short term. To improve air quality and promote the rational development of clean-energy sources and clean-energy technologies, each city will have to work out a practical, realistic, step-by-step, local energy plan based on many factors, including national environmental targets, the availability of indigenous energy resources, and the economic capacity of the city. This is the only way China can achieve coordinated development of energy, the environment, and the national economy. REFERENCES China Energy Online. 2003. Availability of Energy Sources. Available online at: http://www.globalenergy.cn/. In Chinese. CERS (China Energy Research Society). 2002. Energy data for China and the world. Energy Policy Research 2002(1): 57. CERS. 2003. Energy Data for China and the World. Energy Policy Research 2003(6): 76. CAE (Chinese Academy of Engineering). 2001. Assessment of Rational Technical and Economic Routes for Coal-Fired Industrial Boilers. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Engineering. Clean Energy Office. 2003. Clean Energy Plan. Available online at: http://cct.org.cn/. In Chinese. Editorial Board of China. 2003. China Power Yearbook 2003. Beijing: China Power Press. Liu, J. 2002. Study of China’s Resources-Utilization Strategy. Beijing: China Agriculture Press. Municipal Planning Bureau of Kunming City. 2003. Planning of Road Net System in Central Zones in Kunming. Available online at: http://www.kmpg.gov.cn/ghj/index.asp. In Chinese. National Bureau of Statistics. 2003. China Statistical Yearbook, 2003. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Available online at: http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/. In Chinese. SEPA (State Environmental Protection Administration). 2003a. China Environment Yearbook, 2003. Beijing: China Environment Press.
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Urbanization, Energy, and Air Pollution in China: The Challenges Ahead - Proceedings of a Symposium SEPA. 2003b. Report on the State of the Environment in China. Available online at: http://www.zhb.gov.cn/. In Chinese. Wang, G. 2003. Optimization of Energy Source Mix in Cities and Promotion of Energy Construction. Presented at the High-Level Energy Forum, Beijing, Nov. 16–17, 2003. Yu, Z., and G. Chen. 2001. Burning washed coal: an effective way to reduce pollution from industrial boilers. Energy Conservation and Environment Protection 2001(5): 24–27. Yu, Z., et al. 2004a. Clean Coal Technology Development and Application. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press. Yu, Z., R. Zhou, and L.V. Xin. 2004b. Emission Reduction Measures and Assessments for Industrial Boilers in 18 Cities. Presented at the U.S.-China Industrial Boiler Workshop, Beijing, China, June 10–11, 2004. Zhou, F., and Q. Wang. 2002. Fifty Years of Chinese Energy. Beijing: China Power Press.
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