management strategies for water quality improvement and an integral part of the CWARP is to undertake coordinated basin-wide monitoring (including biological monitoring) and modeling to estimate the amounts and relative impacts of various sources of pollutants entering the region’s surface and groundwater. This is critical to ensuring that remediation efforts are appropriately targeted to the most important sources of pollution and that limited funds for remediation are spent on the highest-risk problems. The southwestern Pennsylvania experience is repeated to a greater or lesser extent around the United States, and the solutions suggested in this report relating to cooperation and regionalization are widely recognized as having national implications and benefits. Thus, the program recommended herein for water quality improvement in southwestern Pennsylvania can serve as a model for other regions. Lastly, effective implementation of this report’s recommendations regarding water pollution reduction is not intended to delay current progress in regional water quality improvement.