Management Model 1 “Homeowner Awareness”
Management Model 2 “Maintenance Contracts”
Management Model 3 “Operating Permits”
Management Model 4 “Responsible Management Entity (RME) Operation and Maintenance”
Management Model 5 “RME Ownership”
SOURCE: EPA, 2003b.
In the context of the Pittsburgh region, projects with comparable outcomes would be those that produce essentially the same impacts on water quality for all water quality criteria. However, many feasible projects may fare better by some water quality criteria than by others. If multiple water quality criteria are important, projects with differing water quality outcomes may not be comparable for the purposes of cost-effectiveness analysis. Benefit-cost analysis would allow comparisons between such projects. Further, benefit cost-analysis would allow inclusion of ancillary benefits if any. Importantly, to be useful in setting priorities for projects and policies, estimates of benefits and costs must be tied to the water quality gains from specific initiatives.
Although different techniques of varying data intensiveness exist to estimate the benefits of reducing the risks of waterborne disease, essential information is lacking for estimating the relationships between CSO control and the likelihood and severity of contamination events. For example, a key question that cannot be answered with current data on sources of pathogens and the effectiveness of prospective control measures (see also Chapter 4) is the extent to which the likelihood of contamination events in various systems will be diminished. Recent work by Casman et al. (2000) illustrates an approach to modeling drinking water risks that would offer a good starting point for systematic analysis of risk management in the region. Further, for the