hypothyroidism:

decreased secretion of thyroxine and triiodothyronine from the thyroid gland.


I:

iodide. Iodide is the physiologically active anion of iodine. It is a micronutrient essential for thyroid hormone production.7

iodine:

an atomic element that occurs nutritionally in the form of iodide.

IUI:

iodide uptake inhibition.


Km:

see Michaelis-Menten constant.


L/hr per kg:

liters per hour per kilogram of body weight.

LOAEL:

lowest observed-adverse-effect level. The lowest exposure at which there are statistically or biologically significant increases in frequency or severity of adverse effects in an exposed population compared with its appropriate control group.8


mechanism or mode of action:

processes causing a biologic effect, for example, toxicity.

mg:

milligram (one-thousandth of a gram).

mg/hr/kg:

milligrams per hour per kilogram of body weight.

mg/kg:

milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

mg/L:

milligrams per liter (equivalent to parts per million [ppm]).

Michaelis-Menten constant:

the chemical concentration that can be saturated at half maximal capacity of a physiologic process, such as protein binding or active transport.9

milliunits per liter:

a measure of concentration based on the biologic activity of a substance rather than its weight or volume.

mL:

milliliter (one-thousandth of a liter).

mM:

millimolar (concentration of 1 millimole per liter).

monoiodotyrosine:

an intermediate in the production of thyroid hormones that contains a single iodine atom.4

mRNA:

messenger ribonucleic acid.

mU/L:

see milliunits per liter.


µg:

microgram (one-millionth of a gram).

µg/dL:

micrograms per deciliter.

µg/L:

micrograms per liter (equivalent to parts per billion [ppb]).

µM:

micromolar (a concentration of 1 micromole per liter).


ng:

nanogram (one-billionth of a gram).

ng/hr/kg:

nanograms per hour per kilogram of body weight.

ng/L:

nanograms per liter.

NIS:

see sodium (Na+)/iodide(I) symporter.

NOAEL:

no-observed-adverse-effect level. An exposure level at which there are no statistically or biologically significant increases in the frequency or severity of adverse effects in an exposed population



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