under way and recently conducted a workshop focused on the Centennial Challenges program).

Subsequently, on January 30, 2004, President Bush created, by executive order, the President's Commission on Moon, Mars and Beyond (the Aldridge commission) to make recommendations to the administration regarding realization of the new vision and to advise NASA on issues related to long-term implementation of the vision.5 The Aldridge commission report discusses paradigms and relationships with external stakeholders, which the commission indicates must be developed by NASA in order for the vision to have long-term viability and success.6 In response to the Aldridge commission’s report, NASA again transformed its organizational structure on August 1, 2004.7

Before the President’s presentation of the new vision and the NASA reorganization and in parallel with the Aldridge commission’s work, the Office of Exploration Systems had tasked the National Academies with planning a series of workshops on policy issues related to the development of space technology. The first workshop8 centered on policy issues concerning the development and demonstration of space technologies, specifically those in a proposed new framework for space technology and systems development—Advanced Systems, Technologies, Research, and Analysis (ASTRA) for Future Space Flight Capabilities. The second workshop in the series was to focus on answering the following question: “What is the best mode of interaction between NASA, industry, and other stakeholders when developing and demonstrating advanced space systems?” This topic seemed appropriate in the context of the new vision and NASA’s reorganization.

The seven-member NRC steering committee and the NASA technical sponsor agreed that focusing the discussions at the second workshop on examples of mechanisms for cooperation and on programs encouraging different types and levels of interaction among government, industry, and academia would be important in scoping the issue. The committee selected topics for discussion that would give NASA information on and ideas for developing new modes of interaction between its programs and other stakeholders, especially in long-term technology development and partnerships. Not all the examples involve space technology; some involve technology in general. The committee also chose not to include examples of collaborative programs within NASA.


The workshop agenda was divided into three sessions. The topic discussed at the first session was industry-government relationships at DARPA—in particular, the phased competition and spiral development mechanisms used in the UCAV program (Chapter 3). The second session examined various cooperative models used by the DOD, including


Executive Order Creating the Presidential Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, January 30, 2004.


Aldridge Commission. 2004. Report of the President’s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy: A Journey to Inspire, Innovate, and Discover. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June.


NASA. 2004. “Administrator Unveils Next Steps of NASA Transformation Alignment.” Press release. June 24.


NRC. 2004. Stepping-Stones to the Future of Space Exploration: A Workshop Report. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Available online at <http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11020.html>. Accessed September 10, 2004.

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