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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Grant No. DMR-0318562 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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Cover (clockwise from left): Axial MRI scan of the human brain; decoherence of electron spins near a quantum phase transition by a nuclear spin bath, imaged by inelastic neutron scattering as a function of magnetic field, courtesy H.M. Ronnow, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique at Grenoble, France; Meissner-effect levitation of a high-temperature superconductor over a rare-earth magnet, courtesy F. Kraehenbuehl, Cables Cortaillod S.A.; ribbon representation of a large protein complex composed of two copies of the E. coli histidine phosphocarrier protein (in green) and two copies of subunit A of the enzyme II mannose protein (in red and blue), courtesy M. Clore and D.C. Williams, National Institutes of Health.

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