About the Authors

R. Michael Roberts, Ph.D., (NAS) (Chair) is the Curator's Professor of Animal Science, Biochemistry and Veterinary Pathology at the University of Missouri. He is best known for his contributions in facilitating our understanding of embryo-maternal communication during the early stages of pregnancy. Roberts was the first to discover that early placentas produce interferons that mediate maternal recognition of the embryo in cattle and sheep. He has broad expertise in plant and animal physiology and experience with the National Academies' deliberative study process. In addition to his current position, Roberts has served as Chair of the Veterinary Pathobiology Department at Missouri from 1995 to 1998, and Chief Scientist for the USDA's National Research Initiative from 1998 to 2000. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1996. Roberts received his Ph.D. in plant physiology and biochemistry from Oxford University, England, in 1965. Among his numerous awards and honors, Roberts was named a Fellow of the World Health Organization (1977), and has been awarded the U.S Department of Agriculture Distinguished Scientist (1992), Alexander von Humboldt Award for Agriculture (1996), and the Wolf Prize for Agriculture (2003). He previously served on the National Research Council Committee on Defining Science-Based Concerns Associated with Products of Animal Biotechnology, and currently serves on the Editorial Board of The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Members

Joseph W. Alexander, D.V.M., is Vice President for Research and External Relations at Oklahoma State University, and previously was the Dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine. His responsibilities in administration of research services include ensuring that all research programs and policies are in compliance with state and federal regulations. He has extensive experience with the administration of veterinary hospitals. Alexander's research has focused on orthopedics and dysplasia in cats and dogs, with additional research involving marine mammals. While at Oklahoma State University, he oversaw the operation of the Boren Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. During his tenure with Virginia Tech, he was the Director for the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. Alexander was selected as a Distinguished Practitioner by his peers in the National Academy of Practice in Veterinary Medicine in 1997. He is a past president of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges and a past president of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine. He has also been a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons since 1979. He is the editor of several books on the veterinary clinics of North America, and orthopedic diseases. Alexander has a B.S. in animal science from the University of Arizona, an M.S. in educational administration from the University of Tennessee and supervision, and a D.V.M. from Colorado State University.

Bradford S. Bell, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University. Previously, he was a lecturer in industrial and organizational psychology at Michigan State University. Bell has experience in organizational psychology studying the implications of integrating the features of active learning techniques into complex and dynamic learning environments. His primary research focuses on developing learning



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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report About the Authors R. Michael Roberts, Ph.D., (NAS) (Chair) is the Curator's Professor of Animal Science, Biochemistry and Veterinary Pathology at the University of Missouri. He is best known for his contributions in facilitating our understanding of embryo-maternal communication during the early stages of pregnancy. Roberts was the first to discover that early placentas produce interferons that mediate maternal recognition of the embryo in cattle and sheep. He has broad expertise in plant and animal physiology and experience with the National Academies' deliberative study process. In addition to his current position, Roberts has served as Chair of the Veterinary Pathobiology Department at Missouri from 1995 to 1998, and Chief Scientist for the USDA's National Research Initiative from 1998 to 2000. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1996. Roberts received his Ph.D. in plant physiology and biochemistry from Oxford University, England, in 1965. Among his numerous awards and honors, Roberts was named a Fellow of the World Health Organization (1977), and has been awarded the U.S Department of Agriculture Distinguished Scientist (1992), Alexander von Humboldt Award for Agriculture (1996), and the Wolf Prize for Agriculture (2003). He previously served on the National Research Council Committee on Defining Science-Based Concerns Associated with Products of Animal Biotechnology, and currently serves on the Editorial Board of The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Members Joseph W. Alexander, D.V.M., is Vice President for Research and External Relations at Oklahoma State University, and previously was the Dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine. His responsibilities in administration of research services include ensuring that all research programs and policies are in compliance with state and federal regulations. He has extensive experience with the administration of veterinary hospitals. Alexander's research has focused on orthopedics and dysplasia in cats and dogs, with additional research involving marine mammals. While at Oklahoma State University, he oversaw the operation of the Boren Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. During his tenure with Virginia Tech, he was the Director for the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. Alexander was selected as a Distinguished Practitioner by his peers in the National Academy of Practice in Veterinary Medicine in 1997. He is a past president of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges and a past president of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine. He has also been a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons since 1979. He is the editor of several books on the veterinary clinics of North America, and orthopedic diseases. Alexander has a B.S. in animal science from the University of Arizona, an M.S. in educational administration from the University of Tennessee and supervision, and a D.V.M. from Colorado State University. Bradford S. Bell, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University. Previously, he was a lecturer in industrial and organizational psychology at Michigan State University. Bell has experience in organizational psychology studying the implications of integrating the features of active learning techniques into complex and dynamic learning environments. His primary research focuses on developing learning

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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report systems that can enhance individual, team, and organizational effectiveness. His most recent research examines the implications of errors for individual and organizational learning. Bell's research has also examined the impact of individual attributes on learning, and the implications this has for designing effective organizational learning systems. His work has been published in numerous journals and books. He has also worked as a consultant, designing training and development, selection, and performance management systems for a variety of public and private organizations, including the Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Veterinary Centers of America, the Michigan Center for Truck Safety, and the Toledo Police Department. He is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management, the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Bell received his M.Am. and Ph.D. in industrial and organizational psychology from Michigan State University, and his B.A. in psychology from the University of Maryland at College Park. Kurt Benirschke, M.D., is a Professor Emeritus and former Chair of the Pathology Department at the University of California, San Diego. He also has served as Director of Research at the San Diego Zoo, and Chair of the Pathology Department at the Dartmouth Medical School. Benirschke served on the Board of Directors (1986-2000) and as President (1998-2000) of the Zoological Society of San Diego. He has served as a consultant to the National Institutes of Health, World Health Organization, the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, and Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. He has expertise in pathology, zoo research, and zoo administration. He received his M.D. in 1948 in Hamburg, Germany. Benirschke was elected to the New York Academy of Sciences in 1993 and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1994. He previously served on the National Research Council Committee on the Use of Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research and Panel on Microlivestock. Benirschke was awarded the American Zoo and Aquarium Association's highest honor, the R. Marlin Perkins Award, in 1998. Janet Brannian, M.A., is an Adjunct English Instructor at University of Sioux Falls and freelance journalist. She has experience as a zookeeper and animal technician. From 1983 to 1988 she was a Bird Keeper, then an Animal Technician at the Kansas City Zoo, where she maintained the animal collection and trained the zoo volunteers to handle education animals. Brannian also supervised zookeepers in the bird department. Brannian was a science museum educator at the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry from 1990-1992, developing and presenting science demonstrations to museum visitors, and outreach classes to local schools. She currently volunteers at the Sertoma Butterfly House, preparing diets and providing care for butterflies and other invertebrates, and at The Outdoor Campus, providing care for education animals. Brannian received her B.A. (1981) in psychology from the University of Missouri and M.A. in English from the University of South Dakota. Charles C. Capen, D.V.M, Ph.D., (IOM) is a Distinguished University Professor in the Department of Veterinary Biosciences at The Ohio State University. Capen received his D.V.M from Washington State University, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in veterinary pathology from The Ohio State University. He has expertise in comparative pathology, medicine and toxicology. Capen has been a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists since 1965, and was named a Distinguished Member in 1999. He is a past president of the Society of Toxicologic Pathologists and the Association of Veterinary Pathology Chairpersons in North America. Capen has served on the editorial boards of Drug and Chemical Toxicology, Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, and Food and Chemical Toxicology. He has served on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Panel on Endocrine Disruptor Screening Programs, and the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer. Rhetaugh Graves Dumas, Ph.D., RN, (IOM) is Vice Provost Emerita, Dean Emerita and Lucille Cole Professor of Nursing at the University of Michigan School of Nursing. Previously, she was the Deputy Director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dumas is currently finishing a book on the complexities of leadership in human groups and organizations, and continues to provide lectures, consultations, and technical assistance to students, faculty, and administrators in nursing, health care, and various other fields. She has expertise in health care and administration. She is a fellow and former President of the American Academy of Nursing and the National League of Nursing, and served as a member of President Clinton's National Bioethics Advisory Board. Dr. Dumas holds a B.S. degree in nursing from Dillard University, New Orleans, an M.S. in Psychiatric Nursing from Yale University, and a Ph.D. in social psychology from the Union Institute of Cincinnati, Ohio. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1984. She previously served on the National Research Council Committee to Review the Department of Defense's Breast Cancer Research Program,

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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report Committee on A National Neural Circuitry Data Base: A Shared Resource for the Basic and Clinical Neurosciences, and Committee to Plan a Major Study on National Long Term Care Policies. Lester Fisher, D.V.M., is founder and President of LEF Company, a consulting firm to nonprofits. He also is Vice President of the Morris Animal Foundation and Director Emeritus of the Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens in Chicago, where he served as director for 30 years. He received his D.V.M. from Iowa State University in 1943. Fisher was also the owner and director of Berwyn (Illinois) Animal Hospital, Associate Professor in the Department of Biology at DePaul University, and Adjunct Professor of Zoology at the University of Illinois. He has expertise in zoo management and zoo veterinary medicine. Fisher was a member of the International Union of Directors of Zoological Gardens (Vice President 1980-1983; President 1983-1986) and the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians (President 1966-1969). As the second American Zoo and Aquarium Association President, he oversaw the establishment of the International Species Information System. During his presidency, a significant increase in federal legislation affecting zoos was dealt with (including major revisions to the Endangered Species Act), and the Regional Conference Proceedings began publication. Fisher was awarded the American Zoo and Aquarium Association's highest honor, the R. Marlin Perkins Award, in 1996. Harold F. Hintz, Ph.D., is a Professor and Chair Emeritus of the Department of Animal Science at Cornell University. He has extensive expertise in animal nutrition, with a specialization in energy, mineral, and protein and amino acid metabolism in equines. Throughout his career, Hintz has also conducted nutrition research in felines, canines, and a variety of zoo animals. He is currently president of the American Academy of Veterinary Nutrition and is president emeritus of the Equine Nutrition and Physiology Society. In 2002, Hintz was named an Honorary Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Nutrition. Previously, he has served as chair on both the National Research Council Committee on Animal Nutrition (1992) and Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Horses (1978). He also served as chair of the 2002 meeting of the International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology. Hintz received his B.S. from The Ohio State University in animal science, and M.S. and Ph.D. from Cornell University in animal nutrition. Maxim Kiefer, C.I.H., is Director of the Atlanta Field Office and Senior Industrial Hygienist at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. He is responsible for supporting the NIOSH health hazard evaluation program by planning, organizing, and conducting comprehensive industrial hygiene assessments in all industrial sectors involving chemical, biological, and physical hazards. Kiefer has expertise in providing technical advice, assistance, and training on a wide range of industrial hygiene matters to employers, employees, and the occupational safety and health community. He has served as a weapons inspector for the United Nations in Cyprus, and is a Certified Hazardous Materials Emergency Response Technician. He received the Division of Health and Human Service Award for Distinguished Service during the emergency response to the World Trade Center. He received an M.S from Colorado State University (1984) and B.S from the University of Georgia (1982), both in environmental health. Rebecca Remillard, Ph.D., D.V.M., is a Staff Veterinarian and Clinical Nutritionist at MSPCA Angell Animal Medical Center. She is also Director of Hospital Continuing Education and Director of Clinical Research at MSPCA Angell Animal Medical Center. As a practicing veterinarian in a large state-of-the-art medical center, she has extensive knowledge of current veterinary medicine practices and expertise in animal nutrition. Her major research interest is finding objective measures of nutritional status in animals to augment evaluations of patient progress. Remillard is a licensed veterinarian in Massachusetts. Since 1991, she has been a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Nutrition certified in comparative veterinary nutrition. She received a B.S. from Purdue University, an M.S. from University of Maine, and a Ph.D. from Colorado State University, all in animal science, and her D.V.M. from Tufts University. She is a past president of the American Academy of Veterinary Nutrition and Vice President of the American College of Veterinary Nutrition. Bernard A. Schwetz,D.V.M., is the Acting Director for the Office for Human Research Protections at the Department of Health and Human Services. Schwetz earned his D.V.M. from the University of Minnesota and Ph.D. in pharmacology from the University of Iowa. He is nominated as a member of the committee because of his expertise in developmental and reproductive toxicology. Dr. Schwetz is a diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology. Previously, he was Acting Deputy Commissioner, Acting Principal Deputy Commissioner, and Senior Advisor for Science at FDA. He was also Director, National Center for Toxicological Research. He was also associate director of the National Toxicology Program at NIEHS. Dr. Schwetz is a member of the Society of

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Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report Toxicology (SOT) and is past president of the Reproductive Toxicology Specialty Section of the national organization and of the North Carolina and South Carolina Regional Chapters of the SOT. He was editor of Fundamental and Applied Toxicology from 1986-1992, and serves on the Editorial Advisory Board of Environmental Health Perspectives and Critical Reviews in Toxicology. Dr. Schwetz was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1998. Thomas M. Yuill, Ph.D., is Emeritus Director of Gaylord Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin. He received his B.S. (1959) in wildlife management from Utah State University, and M.S. (1962) and Ph.D. (1964) in wildlife ecology and veterinary science (virology) from the University of Wisconsin. Yuill is also a professor emeritus in the Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences and Department of Wildlife Ecology at the University of Wisconsin. He has expertise in virus ecology, arthropod-borne virology, animal ecology, and the environmental effects on epizootiology of animal diseases (emphasis on wildlife). Yuill is past president of the Organization for Tropical Studies and of the Wildlife Disease Association, and past Director for the Center for Livestock in International Development. He is a consultant to the National Institutes of Health (and past chair, U.S.- Japan Panel on Viral Diseases), Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Agency for International Development, and has served on the Board of Directors of the Tropical Agricultural Center for Research and Instruction (CATIE), headquartered in Costa Rica. He previously served on the National Research Council Panel on Microlivestock. Stephen L. Zawistowski, Ph.D., is Senior Vice President and Science Advisor of The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. He has worked extensively in animal behavior and welfare. He joined The ASPCA in 1988 as vice president of education, after an academic career that included the University of Illinois, Indiana University, and St. John's University in New York. Zawistowski received his Ph.D. in 1983 and A.M. in 1979 from the University of Illinois in psychology and genetics. Zawistowski is on the Board of Directors for the National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy and is the Chairman of the Animal Behavior Society's Board of Professional Certification. He is a Certified Applied Animal Behaviorist, a Certified Technical Animal Rescue Specialist, and founding co-editor of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science.