systems that can enhance individual, team, and organizational effectiveness. His most recent research examines the implications of errors for individual and organizational learning. Bell's research has also examined the impact of individual attributes on learning, and the implications this has for designing effective organizational learning systems. His work has been published in numerous journals and books. He has also worked as a consultant, designing training and development, selection, and performance management systems for a variety of public and private organizations, including the Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Veterinary Centers of America, the Michigan Center for Truck Safety, and the Toledo Police Department. He is a member of the Society for Human Resources Management, the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Bell received his M.Am. and Ph.D. in industrial and organizational psychology from Michigan State University, and his B.A. in psychology from the University of Maryland at College Park.

Kurt Benirschke, M.D., is a Professor Emeritus and former Chair of the Pathology Department at the University of California, San Diego. He also has served as Director of Research at the San Diego Zoo, and Chair of the Pathology Department at the Dartmouth Medical School. Benirschke served on the Board of Directors (1986-2000) and as President (1998-2000) of the Zoological Society of San Diego. He has served as a consultant to the National Institutes of Health, World Health Organization, the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, and Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. He has expertise in pathology, zoo research, and zoo administration. He received his M.D. in 1948 in Hamburg, Germany. Benirschke was elected to the New York Academy of Sciences in 1993 and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1994. He previously served on the National Research Council Committee on the Use of Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research and Panel on Microlivestock. Benirschke was awarded the American Zoo and Aquarium Association's highest honor, the R. Marlin Perkins Award, in 1998.

Janet Brannian, M.A., is an Adjunct English Instructor at University of Sioux Falls and freelance journalist. She has experience as a zookeeper and animal technician. From 1983 to 1988 she was a Bird Keeper, then an Animal Technician at the Kansas City Zoo, where she maintained the animal collection and trained the zoo volunteers to handle education animals. Brannian also supervised zookeepers in the bird department. Brannian was a science museum educator at the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry from 1990-1992, developing and presenting science demonstrations to museum visitors, and outreach classes to local schools. She currently volunteers at the Sertoma Butterfly House, preparing diets and providing care for butterflies and other invertebrates, and at The Outdoor Campus, providing care for education animals. Brannian received her B.A. (1981) in psychology from the University of Missouri and M.A. in English from the University of South Dakota.

Charles C. Capen, D.V.M, Ph.D., (IOM) is a Distinguished University Professor in the Department of Veterinary Biosciences at The Ohio State University. Capen received his D.V.M from Washington State University, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in veterinary pathology from The Ohio State University. He has expertise in comparative pathology, medicine and toxicology. Capen has been a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists since 1965, and was named a Distinguished Member in 1999. He is a past president of the Society of Toxicologic Pathologists and the Association of Veterinary Pathology Chairpersons in North America. Capen has served on the editorial boards of Drug and Chemical Toxicology, Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, and Food and Chemical Toxicology. He has served on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Panel on Endocrine Disruptor Screening Programs, and the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer.

Rhetaugh Graves Dumas, Ph.D., RN, (IOM) is Vice Provost Emerita, Dean Emerita and Lucille Cole Professor of Nursing at the University of Michigan School of Nursing. Previously, she was the Deputy Director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dumas is currently finishing a book on the complexities of leadership in human groups and organizations, and continues to provide lectures, consultations, and technical assistance to students, faculty, and administrators in nursing, health care, and various other fields. She has expertise in health care and administration. She is a fellow and former President of the American Academy of Nursing and the National League of Nursing, and served as a member of President Clinton's National Bioethics Advisory Board. Dr. Dumas holds a B.S. degree in nursing from Dillard University, New Orleans, an M.S. in Psychiatric Nursing from Yale University, and a Ph.D. in social psychology from the Union Institute of Cincinnati, Ohio. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1984. She previously served on the National Research Council Committee to Review the Department of Defense's Breast Cancer Research Program,



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