INTERIM DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant

Committee to Assess Designs for Pueblo and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant INTERIM DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Committee to Assess Designs for Pueblo and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants Board on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. W911NF-05-C-0036 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09445-3 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-54655-9 (PDF) Limited copies of this report are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room 940 Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant COMMITTEE TO ASSESS DESIGNS FOR PUEBLO AND BLUE GRASS CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANTS ROBERT A. BEAUDET, Chair, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CHARLES BARTON, Iowa Department of Public Health, Des Moines JOAN B. BERKOWITZ, Farkas Berkowitz and Company, Washington, D.C. ADRIENNE T. COOPER, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania RUTH M. DOHERTY, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head, Maryland LAWRENCE E. EISELSTEIN, Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Menlo Park, California HAROLD K. FORSEN, Bechtel Corporation (retired), Kirkland, Washington WILLARD C. GEKLER, PLG, Inc. (retired), Los Alamitos, California CLAIR F. GILL, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. HANK C. JENKINS-SMITH, Texas A&M University, College Station JOHN A. MERSON, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico CHANDRA M. ROY, Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Irvine, California KENNETH A. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MICHAEL K. STENSTROM, University of California at Los Angeles THOMAS WEBLER, Antioch New England Graduate School, Keene, New Hampshire Staff DONALD L. SIEBENALER, Study Director NANCY T. SCHULTE, Study Director HARRISON T. PANNELLA, Program Officer CARTER W. FORD, Senior Project Assistant JAMES C. MYSKA, Research Associate

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY JOHN E. MILLER, Chair, Oracle Corporation, Reston, Virginia GEORGE T. SINGLEY III, Vice Chair, Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, Virginia SETH BONDER, The Bonder Group, Ann Arbor, Michigan DAWN A. BONNELL, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia NORVAL L. BROOME, MITRE Corporation (retired), Suffolk, Virginia ROBERT L. CATTOI, Rockwell International (retired), Dallas, Texas DARRELL W. COLLIER, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (retired), Leander, Texas ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ROBERT R. EVERETT, MITRE Corporation (retired), New Seabury, Massachusetts PATRICK F. FLYNN, Cummins Engine Company, Inc. (retired), Columbus, Indiana WILLIAM R. GRAHAM, National Security Research, Inc., Arlington, Virginia HENRY J. HATCH, Army Chief of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia EDWARD J. HAUG, University of Iowa, Iowa City MIRIAM E. JOHN, California Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore DONALD R. KEITH, Cypress International (retired), Alexandria, Virginia CLARENCE W. KITCHENS, Science Applications International Corporation, Vienna, Virginia ROGER A. KRONE, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania JOHN W. LYONS, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (retired), Ellicott City, Maryland JOHN H. MOXLEY III, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California MALCOLM R. O’NEILL, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland EDWARD K. REEDY, Georgia Tech Research Institute (retired), Atlanta, Georgia DENNIS J. REIMER, National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma WALTER D. SINCOSKIE, Telcordia Technologies, Inc., Morristown, New Jersey WILLIAM R. SWARTOUT, Institute for Creative Technologies, Marina del Rey, California EDWIN L. THOMAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge BARRY M. TROST, Stanford University, Stanford, California JOSEPH J. VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Manager, Program Operations CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate DEANNA P. SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Research Associate

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Preface The Program Manager for the U.S. Army’s Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (formerly, Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment) program requested that the National Research Council (NRC) form a committee to review and evaluate the facility design being developed for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (PCAPP) in Pueblo, Colorado. After an elaborate selection process, the Department of Defense (DOD) chose a hydrolysis (neutralization) process followed by a secondary biotreatment process to destroy the chemical agents and energetic materials in the chemical munitions at Pueblo Chemical Depot. The contract for the design for PCAPP was awarded to Bechtel National, Inc., which formed a group with subcontractors, and together they are known as the Bechtel Pueblo team. This interim report highlights issues that the Committee to Assess Designs for Pueblo and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants (referred to as the ACWA Design Committee) has identified on the basis of a review of the information for the initial PCAPP design made available to the committee. Although the committee first met in November 2003, the subsequent delivery of sufficiently detailed information concerning the initial design for the Pueblo facility was seriously delayed because new security regulations were instituted by the Army. The NRC is subject to Federal Advisory Committee Act and Freedom of Information Act regulations established by Congress regarding public access to the information used in developing its reports. Since the Army’s chemical stockpile is considered a possible terrorist target or source of munitions for terrorists, information about sites where these stockpiles are located is subjected to an operations security (OPSEC) clearance process to prevent the publication of information that might benefit any terrorist activity. This procedure requires that all of the design documentation, as well as related reports and briefings provided to the committee, must first be scrutinized by the appropriate Army authorities. Any sensitive material used by the committee must be exempted from public access requirements. Thus, material not cleared by OPSEC could not be used in this report. This impasse is gradually being resolved, and possible means to improve the timely availability of information for future studies by the ACWA Design Committee are being investigated. In the meantime, the contractor has been proceeding with the facility design. Thus, while the committee has received only the initial design plans, the contractor has already completed the intermediate design. However, the committee has availed itself of all information that it could in preparing this report. The committee was briefed regularly on the design, members paid site visits to locations where the testing and construction of machinery are under way, and certain members attended the periodic design reviews given by the Bechtel Pueblo team. The committee is indebted to both the Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives and the Bechtel Pueblo team for their complete openness, sincerity, and cooperation during the committee’s data-gathering sessions and resultant discussions. The committee believes that the overall process has been

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant effective and constructive and that it will lead to an improved plant design. Appreciation is extended to Joseph Novad and Yu-Chu Yang from the Army Program Office and to Craig Myler from the Bechtel Pueblo team, who have been primary points of contact during this study. A study such as this always requires extensive logistics support. The committee is indebted to NRC staff for their assistance, particularly to the study director for this report, Donald L. Siebenaler, and Nancy T. Schulte, who courageously assumed responsibility for this study during Mr. Siebenaler’s leave of absence. Invaluable contributions were also made by Harrison T. Pannella, who provided suggestions for organizing the report, coordinated initial text submissions by committee members into a first draft of the report, and edited subsequent drafts. Considerable assistance was also provided by the senior project assistant Carter W. Ford and research associate James C. Myska. Robert A. Beaudet, Chair Committee to Assess Designs for Pueblo and Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Richard J. Ayen, Waste Management, Inc. (retired), Judith A. Bradbury, Battelle Patuxent River, John B. Carberry, E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company, Peter B. Lederman, Peter Lederman Associates, Richard S. Magee, Carmagen Engineering, James F. Mathis, Exxon Corporation (retired), Ray McGuire, Consultant, and Janice Phillips, Centocor, Inc. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Hyla S. Napadensky, Napadensky Energetics, Inc. (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   8      Background,   8      Chemical Agent Demilitarization in the United States,   8      Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives Program,   8      Involvement of National Research Council in Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives Program,   9      Statement of Task,   9      Scope of the Report,   10      Organization of the Report,   10      Description of Pueblo Chemical Depot Stockpile,   11      Contractor Design Strategy for Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant,   11 2   DESCRIPTION OF THE PUEBLO CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANT PROCESS   14      Overview of the Process,   14      Transfer and Disassembly of Munitions,   15      Agent and Energetics Transfer Systems,   17      Hydrolysis of Energetic Materials,   18      Agent Processing,   19      Removal of Agent from Munitions,   19      Decontamination of Munitions Bodies,   20      Hydrolysis of Mustard Agent,   20      Biotreatment of Agent and Energetics Hydrolysates,   21      Dunnage Treatment,   21 3   SELECTED PUEBLO CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANT DESIGN ISSUES   27      Sizing of the Facility,   27      Technical Risk Reduction Issues,   28      Disassembly and Transfer Processes,   32      On-site Munitions Transportation Alternatives (from Igloos to Unpack Area),   32

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant      Robotic Performance Coupled with Munitions Washout System,   34      Treatment of Leaking Munitions,   34      Agent and Energetics Transfer Systems,   36      Core Processes,   37      Scale Testing of Energetics Rotary Hydrolyzer,   37      Biological Treatment of Hydrolysates,   38      Residuals Treatment Processes,   41      Prototype Metal Parts Treater,   41      Prototype Continuous Steam Treater,   42      Offgas Treatment Systems,   45      Offgas Treatment System of the Continuous Steam Treater,   46 4   PERMITTING CONSIDERATIONS AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION   48      Permitting Considerations,   48      Public Acceptance and Involvement,   50 5   GENERAL FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   52     REFERENCES   54     APPENDIXES         A  Diagrams of Munitions at Pueblo Chemical Depot   59     B  Bechtel Pueblo Team Division of Responsibilities   62     C  Identified Risks from Initial Technical Risk Assessment   63     D  Committee Meetings and Site Visits   70     E  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   73

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Tables and Figures TABLES 1-1   Chemical Weapons Stockpile of HD- or HT-Filled Munitions at Pueblo Chemical Depot,   11 1-2   Physical Properties of Mustard Agents at Pueblo Chemical Depot,   12 1-3   Compositions of Liquid HD and Liquid HT Agent Drained from 4.2-inch Mortars at Pueblo (Excluding the Composition of Any Solids in the Munitions),   13 2-1   Estimated Quantity of Waste Feed to Dunnage Treatment,   22 3-1   Major Potential Risks and Proposed Mitigation Measures for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Identified in the Technical Risk Assessment,   30 3-2   PCAPP Risk Issues Identified for Testing or Trade Studies,   31 3-3   Equipment Summary for Offgas Treatment Systems at Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant,   46 C-1   PCAPP Design Build Plan, Appendix P,   64 FIGURES ES-1   PCAPP process flow diagram,   3 2-1   PCAPP process flow diagram,   16 2-2   Two-cylinder continuous steam treater configuration,   23 2-3   Primary chamber of the continuous steam treater,   24 2-4   Secondary chamber of the continuous steam treater,   25 A-1   A 105-mm howitzer projectile,   59 A-2   A 155-mm howitzer projectile,   60 A-3   A 4.2-inch mortar cartridge,   60 A-4   Boxed 105-mm projectile,   61 B-1   Bechtel Pueblo team division of responsibilities,   62

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Acronyms ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives ANR agent neutralization reactor APB agent processing building ATS agent transfer system BGCAPP Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant BRS brine recovery system CAM cavity access machine CATOX catalytic oxidation CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDPHE Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment COD chemical oxygen demand CST continuous steam treater CSTR continuously stirred tank reactor DCD Deseret Chemical Depot DOD Department of Defense DPE demilitarization protective ensemble DSC differential scanning calorimetry ECR explosion containment room EDS engineering design study ENR energetics neutralization reactor EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPB energetics processing building ERH energetics rotary hydrolyzer ETS energetics transfer system HD distilled mustard agent HDC heated discharge conveyor HEPA high-efficiency particulate air HT mustard agent containing mustard-T HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning ICB immobilized cell bioreactor IPT integrated product team JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System LEL lower explosive limit MCRT mean cell retention time MPT metal parts treater MWS munitions washout system NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NRC National Research Council OPSEC operations security OTS offgas treatment system PCAPP Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant PCD Pueblo Chemical Depot PMACWA Program Manager, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives PMD projectile/mortar disassembly

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant PPE personal protective equipment RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RD&D research, development, and demonstration RFP request for proposal SRT solids retention time SSPP system safety program plan STEL short-term exposure limit SUPLECAM Surveillance Program for Lethal Chemical Agents and Munitions T bis[2-(2-chloroethylthio)ethyl] ether TAP toxicological agent protective TDS total dissolved solids TNT trinitrotoluene TOC total organic carbon TRA technical risk assessment TRRP technical risk reduction program VOC volatile organic compound WHEAT water hydrolysis of agent and energetics treatment