References

Abercrombie, P.L. 2003. Physical Property Data Review of Selected Chemical Agents and Related Compounds, Updated Field Manual 3-9, ECBCTR-294, September. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Chemical Materials Agency.


Baker, B.A., V.W. Hartmann, and S.A. McCoy. Undated. A New Nickel-Base Alloy for Resisting Metal Dusting Attack. Available online at <http://www.specialmetals.com/documents/A%20New%20Nickel%20Base%20Alloy%20for%20Resisting%20Metal%20Dusting%20Attacks.pdf>. Last accessed July 27, 2004.

Baker. B.A., and F. Di Gabriele, F.H. Stott, and Z. Liu. 2004. Materials Science Forum, Vol. 461–464, pp. 545–552.

Bonnett, P.C., and B. Elmasri. 2001. Base Hydrolysis Process for the Destruction of Energetic Materials. Picatinny Arsenal, N.J.: U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC Armament Systems Process Division.


CDPHE (Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment). 2004a. State RCRA Research, Development, and Demonstration Permit, July 1. Available online at <http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/hm/pcd/finalphase1permit.pdf>. Last Accessed July 29, 2004.

CDPHE. 2004b. Response to Comments. Pueblo Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant (PCAPP) Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) Permit, July. Available online at <http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/hm/pcd/commentresponsephase1.pdf>. Last accessed July 29, 2004.

CDPHE. 2004c. Draft Public Participation Plan for the Chemical Weapons Stockpile Disposal Program, U.S. Army Pueblo Chemical Depot, Pueblo, Colorado, updated April 9. Available online at <http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/hm/pcd/pppdraft0404.pdf>. Last accessed July 29, 2004.

CDPHE. 2004d. Response to Comments on Draft Phase 1 RD&D Permit, July. Available online at <http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/hm/pcd/adminrecord.asp>. Last accessed September 16, 2004.


Earley, J.P., M.A. Guelta, and J.R. Mashinski. Undated. Biological treatment of agent and energetic hydrolysates generated from the washout of mustard (HD) munitions. Available online at <http://www.focisinc.com/pdf/Article_Bio_Treatment_of_Ag.pdf>. Last accessed August 2, 2004.

Emery, E. 2004. Bush plan would delay cleanup of mustard gas at Pueblo Chemical Depot, February 3. Available online at <http://www.denverpost.com/Stories/0,1413,36%257E11676%257E1931449,00.html>. Last accessed July 30, 2004.


FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 1983. Recovery of by-products from hardwood carbonization. Chapter 12 in Simple Technologies for Charcoal Making. Available online at <http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5328e/x5328e0d.htm>. Last accessed July 1, 2004.

Federal Register. 1995. RCRA Expanded Public Participation. Federal Register 60(237): 63417–63434.

FOCIS (FOCIS Associates). 2003a. Summary of Engineering Design Study Munition Washout System (MWS) Testing: Final Technical Report. Newton, Mass.: FOCIS Associates.

FOCIS. 2003b. Summary of Parsons Engineering Design Study I, Projectile Washout System (PWS) Testing: Final Technical Report. Newton, Mass.: FOCIS Associates.


Heilmann, H.M., U. Wiesmann, and M.K. Stenstrom. 1996. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of high explosives RDX and HMX in aqueous solution and adsorbed to activated carbon. Environmental Science and Technology 30(5): 1485–1492.

Hoxie, E.C. 1975. Some Considerations in the Selection of Stainless Steel for Pressure Vessels and Piping. Sterling Forest, N.Y.: International Nickel Company.


Klomp, J. 2004. Letter from John L. Klomp, chair, Colorado Citizens Advisory Commission, to Dale Klein, Assistant Secretary of Defense, January 29, 2004. Available online at <http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/hm/pcdcac.asp>. Last accessed September 16, 2004.


Lai, G.Y., and C.R. Patriarca. 1987. Corrosion of heat-treating furnace accessories. Pp. 1311–1314 in ASM Handbook, Vol. 13: Corrosion (formerly 9th ed.), Metals Handbook. Metals Park, Ohio: ASM International.


Nelson, J.K. 1987. Corrosion by alkalies and hypochlorite. Pp. 1174–1180 in ASM Handbook, Vol. 13: Corrosion (formerly 9th ed.), Metals Handbook. Metals Park, Ohio: ASM International.

Newman, K.E. 1999. A Review of Alkaline Hydrolysis of Energetic Materials: Is It Applicable to Demilitarization of Ordnance?, IHTR 2167. Indian Head, Md.: Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head.

NRC (National Research Council). 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1999a. Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1999b. Perspectives on Biodiversity: Valuing Its Role in an Everchanging World. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1999c. New Strategies for America’s Watersheds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2000. Evaluation of Demonstration Test Results of Alternative Tech-



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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant References Abercrombie, P.L. 2003. Physical Property Data Review of Selected Chemical Agents and Related Compounds, Updated Field Manual 3-9, ECBCTR-294, September. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Chemical Materials Agency. Baker, B.A., V.W. Hartmann, and S.A. McCoy. Undated. A New Nickel-Base Alloy for Resisting Metal Dusting Attack. Available online at <http://www.specialmetals.com/documents/A%20New%20Nickel%20Base%20Alloy%20for%20Resisting%20Metal%20Dusting%20Attacks.pdf>. Last accessed July 27, 2004. Baker. B.A., and F. Di Gabriele, F.H. Stott, and Z. Liu. 2004. Materials Science Forum, Vol. 461–464, pp. 545–552. Bonnett, P.C., and B. Elmasri. 2001. Base Hydrolysis Process for the Destruction of Energetic Materials. Picatinny Arsenal, N.J.: U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC Armament Systems Process Division. CDPHE (Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment). 2004a. State RCRA Research, Development, and Demonstration Permit, July 1. Available online at <http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/hm/pcd/finalphase1permit.pdf>. Last Accessed July 29, 2004. CDPHE. 2004b. Response to Comments. Pueblo Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant (PCAPP) Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) Permit, July. Available online at <http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/hm/pcd/commentresponsephase1.pdf>. Last accessed July 29, 2004. CDPHE. 2004c. Draft Public Participation Plan for the Chemical Weapons Stockpile Disposal Program, U.S. Army Pueblo Chemical Depot, Pueblo, Colorado, updated April 9. Available online at <http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/hm/pcd/pppdraft0404.pdf>. Last accessed July 29, 2004. CDPHE. 2004d. Response to Comments on Draft Phase 1 RD&D Permit, July. Available online at <http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/hm/pcd/adminrecord.asp>. Last accessed September 16, 2004. Earley, J.P., M.A. Guelta, and J.R. Mashinski. Undated. Biological treatment of agent and energetic hydrolysates generated from the washout of mustard (HD) munitions. Available online at <http://www.focisinc.com/pdf/Article_Bio_Treatment_of_Ag.pdf>. Last accessed August 2, 2004. Emery, E. 2004. Bush plan would delay cleanup of mustard gas at Pueblo Chemical Depot, February 3. Available online at <http://www.denverpost.com/Stories/0,1413,36%257E11676%257E1931449,00.html>. Last accessed July 30, 2004. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 1983. Recovery of by-products from hardwood carbonization. Chapter 12 in Simple Technologies for Charcoal Making. Available online at <http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5328e/x5328e0d.htm>. Last accessed July 1, 2004. Federal Register. 1995. RCRA Expanded Public Participation. Federal Register 60(237): 63417–63434. FOCIS (FOCIS Associates). 2003a. Summary of Engineering Design Study Munition Washout System (MWS) Testing: Final Technical Report. Newton, Mass.: FOCIS Associates. FOCIS. 2003b. Summary of Parsons Engineering Design Study I, Projectile Washout System (PWS) Testing: Final Technical Report. Newton, Mass.: FOCIS Associates. Heilmann, H.M., U. Wiesmann, and M.K. Stenstrom. 1996. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of high explosives RDX and HMX in aqueous solution and adsorbed to activated carbon. Environmental Science and Technology 30(5): 1485–1492. Hoxie, E.C. 1975. Some Considerations in the Selection of Stainless Steel for Pressure Vessels and Piping. Sterling Forest, N.Y.: International Nickel Company. Klomp, J. 2004. Letter from John L. Klomp, chair, Colorado Citizens Advisory Commission, to Dale Klein, Assistant Secretary of Defense, January 29, 2004. Available online at <http://www.cdphe.state.co.us/hm/pcdcac.asp>. Last accessed September 16, 2004. Lai, G.Y., and C.R. Patriarca. 1987. Corrosion of heat-treating furnace accessories. Pp. 1311–1314 in ASM Handbook, Vol. 13: Corrosion (formerly 9th ed.), Metals Handbook. Metals Park, Ohio: ASM International. Nelson, J.K. 1987. Corrosion by alkalies and hypochlorite. Pp. 1174–1180 in ASM Handbook, Vol. 13: Corrosion (formerly 9th ed.), Metals Handbook. Metals Park, Ohio: ASM International. Newman, K.E. 1999. A Review of Alkaline Hydrolysis of Energetic Materials: Is It Applicable to Demilitarization of Ordnance?, IHTR 2167. Indian Head, Md.: Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head. NRC (National Research Council). 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999a. Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999b. Perspectives on Biodiversity: Valuing Its Role in an Everchanging World. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1999c. New Strategies for America’s Watersheds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2000. Evaluation of Demonstration Test Results of Alternative Tech-

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Interim Design Assessment for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant nologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons: A Supplemental Review. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001a. Evaluation of Demonstration Test Results of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons: A Supplemental Review for Demonstration II. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001b. Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Pueblo Chemical Depot. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2002a. Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Blue Grass Army Depot. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2002b. Update on the Engineering Design Studies Evaluated in the NRC Report Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Blue Grass Army Depot: Letter Report. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2002c. Update on the Engineering Design Studies Evaluated in the NRC Report Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Pueblo Chemical Depot: Letter Report. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2004. Effects of Degraded Agent and Munitions Anomalies on Chemical Stockpile Disposal Operations. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Thorn, K.A., P.G. Thorne, and L.G. Cox. 2004. Alkaline hydrolysis/polymerization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene: Characterization of products by 13C and 15N NMR. Environmental Science and Technology 38(7): 2224–2231. U.S. Army. 1972. Military Specification, Increments, Propellant for Charge, Propelling, M36A2 (Made from Propellant M-8), MIL-I-48086, September 1. Available online at <http://assist.daps.dla.mil/docimages/0002/74/97/48086.PD2>. Last accessed July 27, 2004. U.S. Army. 1988. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Chemical Materials Agency. U.S. Army. 1999. Department of the Army Pamphlet 385–64: Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards, December 15. Washington, D.C.: Headquarters, Department of the Army. U.S. Army. 2001. Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program Supplemental Report to Congress, June. Available online at <http://www.pmacwa.army.mil/ip/archive/publication/rtc/200106_rtc_supplemental.pdf.>. Last accessed September 16, 2004. U.S. Army. 2002a. Toxic Chemical Agent Safety Standards. Department of the Army Pamphlet 385-61. Washington, D.C.: Headquarters, Department of the Army. U.S. Army. 2002b. Final Environmental Impact Statement: Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. U.S. Army. 2003a. Design-Build Plan for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (PCAPP) Project, Rev. 0, June 16. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. U.S. Army. 2003b. Engineering Study: Refrigeration Study, Rev. 0, December 3. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. U.S. Army. 2003c. Energetics Hydrolysis Test Plan, Rev. 0, July 29. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. U.S. Army. 2003d. Test Plan for Prototype Continuous Steam Treater (CST), Rev. 0, December 10. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. U.S. Army. 2004a. Implementation Guidance Policy for Revised Airborne Exposures Limits for GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, H, HD, and HT, June 18. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. U.S. Army. 2004b. Initial Design for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (PCAPP) Project, Rev. A—redacted for release to NRC, January 16. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives.

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