National Institutes of Health and the Committee on Changing Health Care Systems and Rheumatic Disease. Ms. Lappin received her J.D. from the University of Denver.

Myron M. Levine, M.D., D.T.P.H., is Professor and Director of the Center for Vaccine Development at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. During his 34 years at the University, he has fostered the discipline of vaccinology, focusing on basic research on the pathogenesis of bacterial enteric infections and on the construction of vaccine candidates; clinical research to assess the safety and immunogenicity of candidate vaccines in adult and pediatric populations; and epidemiological field research. Dr. Levine has served on the IOM Committee on the Review of the USDA E. coli 0157:H7 Farm-to-Table Process Risk Assessment, the Steering Committee for the Study on the U.S. Capacity to Address Tropical Disease Problems, and is a member of the Board of the Medical Follow-Up Agency. He received his M.D. from the Medical College of Virginia and completed a pediatric residency and pediatric infectious disease fellowship at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Dr. Levine received his D.T.P.H. from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Dr. Levine is a member of the IOM.

Anna C. Mastroianni, J.D., M.P.H., is an Assistant Professor at the School of Law and at the Institute for Public Health Genetics at the University of Washington. Previously, Professor Mastroianni was a practicing health care attorney, Associate Director of the White House Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, and a study director for the IOM Committee to Study the Legal and Ethical Issues Relating to the Inclusion of Women in Clinical Studies. Her research and teaching focus on health law and bioethics, with specific interests in the legal, ethical, and policy issues related to the responsible conduct of research, human subjects research, public health, the use of genetic technologies, and women’s health. Professor Mastroianni is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She has served on the NRC Committee on Institutional Review Boards, Surveys, and Social Science Research. Professor Mastroianni received her J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania Law School and her M.P.H. from the University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine. She is the author and coauthor of numerous publications on law, ethics, and public health policy.

Colin L. Soskolne, Ph.D., is Professor of Epidemiology in the Department of Public Health Sciences at the University of Alberta, where he has been based since 1985. Following graduate studies, he was Director of the Epi-



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