Events (policy, program, and other developments)

IOM Committee Meeting or Report

November 2001

DHHS awards $428 million contract to Acambis/Baxter to produce smallpox vaccine (DHHS, 2001).

NIH-funded researchers began to examine efficacy of diluted Dryvax smallpox vaccine (NIH, 2001).


February 2002

CDC asks ACIP to review its recommendations on smallpox vaccination.

April 2002

NIAID study finds that Dryvax smallpox vaccine may be diluted to expand supply (Frey et al., 2002; NIH, 2002). Dilutions of 1:5 and 1:10 resulted in take rates approximately as high as undiluted vaccine.

June 2002

ACIP meets and drafts supplemental recommendations on smallpox vaccination (vaccinate up to 20,000 health care and public health workers) (ACIP, 2002).

Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 signed into law (FDA, 2002).

October 2002

ACIP meets again and updates recommendations on smallpox vaccination.

ACIP also recommends offering vaccine to up to 500,000 health care and public health personnel (CDC, 2002a).

IOM Committee on Smallpox Vaccination Program Implementation convened at request of CDC

November 2002

President signs Homeland Security Act (White House, 2002a).

Designated CDC staff members receive smallpox vaccination (epidemiologic investigation teams) (Associated Press, 2001). Mass media report that Bush administration intelligence review has concluded that four nations (Iraq, North Korea, Russia, and France) may possess covert and illegal stocks of smallpox virus (Gellman, 2002).


December 2002

States submit to CDC smallpox response plans and smallpox pre-event vaccination plans (CDC, 2002c).

CDC completes initial review of state smallpox vaccination plans President announces smallpox vaccination program.

First meeting of IOM Committee on Smallpox Vaccination Program Implementation

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