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Agricultural (Biological) Approaches
  • Selecting drought resistant crop varieties.

  • Selecting appropriate crops.

  • Optimizing use of other agricultural inputs, such as fertilizers, herbicides, and other supplements.

  • Implementing a proper crop rotation program.


Allen, R., G.M. Smith, W.O. Pruitt, and L.S. Pereira. 1966. Modifications to the FAO crop coefficient approach. Proceedings of the ASAE International Conference on Evapotranspiration and Irrigation Scheduling, Nov. 3-6 San Antonio; TX.

Blaney, H.F. and W.D. Criddle. 1950. USDA Soil Conservation Service Tech. Paper No. 96, p. 48.

Doorenbos, J. and A.H. Kassam. 1979. Yield response to water. FAO Irrigation Drainage Paper 33, United Nations, Rome.

Doorenbos, J. and W.O. Pruitt. 1977. Guidelines for predicting crop water requirements. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 24, Rev., Rome. p.156.

Dehghani, S.H, A. Alizadeh, and A. Keshavarz. 1999. Implementation of water use pattern in terms of volumetric supply of water to farmers, IAERI.

Monteith, J.L. 1965. Evaporation and environment. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 19, p. 205-234.

Ministry of Agriculture and Meteorological Organization. 1998. National documents of water; Crop water requirements, Vol. 30.

Penman, H.L. 1948. Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass. Proc. Roy. Soc. A. 193:120-145.

Smith, M., R. Allen, J.L. Monteith, L.A. Pereira, and A. Segeren. 1991. Report on the expert consultation for the revision of FAO methodologies for crop water requirements. FAO/AGL, Rome.

Smith, M., R. Allen, and L. Pereira. 1996. Revised FAO metho1ogy for crop water requirements. Proceedings of the ASAE International Conference on Evapotranspiration and Irrigation Scheduling. Nov. 3-6, San Antonio, TX. Pp. 16-123.

Thornthwaite, C.W. 1948. An approach towards a rational classification of climate. Geog. Rev. 38, p. 55-94.

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