Index

Note to the reader: This index contains entries for each of the six volumes of the Veterans and Agent Orange series released to date: Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam (I), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1996 (II), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998 (III), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000 (IV), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2002 (V), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 (VI). Page numbers for the discussions of topics in specific volumes follow the roman numerals denoted above. Thus, for example, the entry “Agent Blue, I: 27, 89–90, 93, 97, 100; III: 136, 137; IV: 118” first refers to material found on pages 27, 89–90, 93, 97, and 100 in Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam, then to material found on pages 136 and 137 of Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998 and on page 118 of Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000.



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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 Index Note to the reader: This index contains entries for each of the six volumes of the Veterans and Agent Orange series released to date: Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam (I), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1996 (II), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998 (III), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000 (IV), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2002 (V), Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 (VI). Page numbers for the discussions of topics in specific volumes follow the roman numerals denoted above. Thus, for example, the entry “Agent Blue, I: 27, 89–90, 93, 97, 100; III: 136, 137; IV: 118” first refers to material found on pages 27, 89–90, 93, 97, and 100 in Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam, then to material found on pages 136 and 137 of Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998 and on page 118 of Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000.

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 A Abortions. See Spontaneous abortion ACC. See US Army Chemical Corps Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. See AIDS/HIV ACS. See American Cancer Society ACTH. See Adrenocorticotropic hormone Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). See Leukemia Aacute Myelogenous Leukemia. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Herbicides/Dioxin Exposure and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in the Children of Vietnam Veterans (Acute Myelogenous Leukemia) Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). See Leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia (AML). See Leukemia AD. See Alzheimer’s disease ADA. See American Diabetes Association Adipose tissue TCDD distribution, I: 130, 131, 168–169, 259, 269, 280; IV: 42, 43, 64, 116, 117; VI: 67–68 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), IV: 59 Aerial spraying, I: 3, 24; III: 135, 137, 139; IV: 117, 120, 123, 150, 160, 303; VI: 175–177, 185 military early research, I: 25–26; III: 28; IV: 150 records of, I: 84–85, 287 See also Herbicide application methods; Herbicides AFHS. See Air Force Health Study Aflatoxin, I: 453; IV: 267 Africa, sub-Saharan, II: 181; III: 282; IV: 267; VI: 221 Age and aging acute lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 384; IV: 9, 378 acute myeloid leukemia incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 384; IV: 378 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, V: 524 bone/joint cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 302; IV: 288; V: 279 brain cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 356; IV: 351; V: 339, 524 breast cancer incidence in US women, data for selected age groups, III: 324; IV: 314; V: 301 cancer age-specific incidence, I: 436–438 chronic lymphocytic leukemia incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 384; IV: 378 chronic myeloid leukemia incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 384; IV: 378 diabetes prevalence, data by age, III: 492 epidemiologic studies, control of aging effects, II: 261–262; III: 409; IV: 3, 13, 23 female reproductive system cancer incidence, data by type, for selected age groups, III: 329, 330; IV: 321; V: 310 gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence, data by type for selected age groups, III: 267; IV: 250; V: 244 Hodgkin’s disease incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 372; IV: 365; V: 355 immune system, IV: 31, 79 kidney cancer, V: 334 laryngeal cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 292; IV: 277; V: 268 latency and, II: 261–262, 273, 275; III: 409, 414–415, 425, 428, 430; IV: 254, 256, 264, 265 leukemia incidence, data by type, for selected age groups, III: 384; IV: 378; V: 367 liver/intrahepatic bile duct cancers incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 282; IV: 267; V: 260 lung cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 296; IV: 281; V: 272 melanoma incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 313; IV: 300; V: 288 multiple myeloma incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 377; V: 361 nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 289; IV: 273; V: 265 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma age of onset, I: 436 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 362; IV: 356; V: 344

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 parkinsonism, V: 524 prostate cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 334; IV: 10, 327; V: 317, 524 renal cancers incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 352; IV: 346 reproductive disorders, IV: 51–52, 59, 63, 66, 71, 80, 200 research recommendations, V: 524 soft-tissue sarcoma age of onset, I: 436 soft-tissue sarcoma incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 306; IV: 292; V: 282 TCDD half–life, IV: 24, 28, 45 testicular cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 343; IV: 335; V: 325 urinary bladder cancer incidence, data for selected age groups, III: 347; IV: 340; V: 328 See also Demographic data, Vietnam veterans Agent Blue, I: 27, 89–90, 93, 97, 100; III: 136, 137; IV: 118; VI: 183–185 volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136 Agent Green, I: 27, 90, 92, 114; III: 136, 137, 140, 146; IV: 118; VI: 183 volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136; IV: 123 Agent Orange, II: 308; III: 130, 159, 315, 344, 359, 389, 407, 444, 460, 462, 489, 491; IV: 117–118, 150, 156; V: 1, 12; VI: 1, 183 Air Force research activities, II: 31–32; III: 28–29 birth defects association, II: 298, 300; III: 435; IV: 400 breast cancer association, V: 307 cancer latency issues, II: 260–276; III: 407–431; IV: 284 chemical composition, I: 27; II: 102; IV: 119 chloracne association, II: 317, 318; III: 479; IV: 138, 463; V: 478 congressional hearings, II: 27–28; III: 25 defoliant effectiveness, I: 90 Department of Veterans Affairs activities, II: 29–31, 153, 156–157; III: 27–28; IV: 15 Environmental Protection Agency research activities, II: 32; III: 29–30 exposure opportunity index (EOI), II: 290–291; III: 146, 147, 148; IV: 124, 405 federal government action/research, I: 45–60; II: 27–32; III: 27–32; IV: 13 health effects of, concerns, I: 2; II: 19–23, 26–27; III: 19–20, 236, 237, 240, 242, 243 International Agency for Research on Cancer research activities, III: 30 legislation, I: 47–52; II: 28–29; III: 26–27; IV: 1, 15 Orange II formulation, I: 90; III: 137; IV: 119 product liability litigation, I: 34–35 spontaneous abortion, II: 283; IV: 399–400, 409–412; V: 414 suspension of use, I: 92–93; II: 26 TCDD as contaminant of, I: 91, 114, 126–127; II: 102; III: 140; IV: 133–135 Vietnam amount used, I: 1, 27, 74, 90, 97–98, 106; II: 1, 26; III: 136; IV: 115, 118–119 Vietnam military application, I: 1, 3, 27, 74, 84–85, 90, 92–93, 97–107, 543–545; II: 1, 26–27; III: 1, 25, 136, 137, 138, 140; IV: 125–126 Vietnam surplus disposal, I: 93–94 Vietnam veterans’ concerns, I: 32–34; II: 26–27 Vietnam veterans’ increased disease risk, II: 22–23; III: 22–23, 272; IV: 8–9, 12, 256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 305, 311, 318, 323, 332, 338, 343, 348, 353, 359, 367, 374, 381, 388 volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, II: 136; IV: 120, 123, 150 See also Herbicides; Incineration, of Agent Orange Agent Orange, the Deadly Fog, I: 33 Agent Orange Act of 1991. See Public Law 102-4 Agent Orange Briefs, I: 56; II: 31; III: 28 Agent Orange II. See Agent Orange Agent Orange Registry (AOR), I: 20, 53, 56, 729; II: 29, 31, 153, 228; III: 28, 344 See also Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) Agent Orange Review, I: 56; II: 31; III: 28 Agent Orange Scientific Task Force, I: 60–61 Agent Orange Study, I: 19, 57, 58–59, 63–64, 276–278; II: 102; III: 147, 148; IV: 124

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 Agent Orange Task Force, II: 24–26; III: 24–25, 148; IV: 124 See also Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) Agent Orange Validation Study, III: 240; IV: 156, 159, 160, 162, 283, 304, 327, 403; VI: 139, 190 Agent Orange Victims International, I: 34 Agent Orange Working Group, I: 19, 46, 58, 277, 743 research methodology, I: 728 Agent Pink, I: 27, 90, 92, 114; III: 136, 137, 140, 146; IV: 118, 122–123; VI: 183 volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136; IV: 123 Agent Purple, I: 27, 89, 92, 114; III: 136, 140, 146; IV: 118, 122–123; VI: 183 Operation Ranch Hand, IV: 123 TCDD in, I: 126; IV: 122 volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136 Agent White, I: 27, 90, 92–93, 97, 115, 189; III: 136, 137; IV: 118–119; V: 36, 40; VI: 43, 183–185 volume used in Operation Ranch Hand, data, III: 136 Agricultural/forestry workers, VI: 119, 124–128 brain tumors, I: 320, 523; II: 136 Canadian Farmer Cohort, II: 135–136 cancers, I: 13, 37, 320–323, 443, 447, 454; II: 133–137, 179 case-control studies, I: 326–341, 486–488; II: 118–122, 138–140; III: 185–195, 228–232; V: 113–114; VI: 127–128 cohort studies, I: 318–323; II: 118–120, 135–137, 197–198; III: 178–185, 224–228; IV: 197–202; V: 6, 109–113; VI: 124–127 epidemiologic studies, I: 37, 318–323; II: 118–120, 135–137, 232–234, 238–239, 241–243; III: 178–195, 224–232, 284–285, 335, 364–365, 379–380, 387–388; IV: 134, 141–142, 145, 257, 260, 263, 265, 271, 285, 290, 296, 306, 312, 318, 324, 333, 338, 349, 353, 360, 368, 374, 381, 401; V: 3, 143–153, 222–224; VI: 124–125 female reproductive and breast cancers, I: 510–511; IV: 324–325 hepatobiliary cancer, I: 454; II: 183–184; III: 284–285; IV: 271 herbicide exposure assessment, I: 265–266; III: 154–157; IV: 202 Hodgkin’s disease, I: 550–553; II: 135 Irish agricultural workers study, II: 136–137 kidney cancer, I: 515 leukemia, I: 332–335, 566–568; II: 136; III: 387–388 malignant lymphoma in, IV: 201 multiple myelomas, I: 11–12, 558–561; II: 138–139, 238–239, 241–243; III: 379–380 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, I: 9, 256–257, 530–540; II: 138, 139, 232–234; III: 364–365; IV: 359–361 parkinsonism in, V: 6 prostate cancer, I: 11, 518, 519, 575; II: 8–9; III: 335; IV: 327–329 reproductive outcomes, I: 510–511, 598 respiratory cancer, I: 11, 466; II: 197–198 soft-tissue sarcomas, I: 37, 326–328, 479–481, 486–488 sperm dysfunction, I: 632 suicide, I: 650 See also Forests; Professional herbicide/pesticide applicators Agricultural Health Study (AHS), IV: 142; VI: 126, 175 See also Iowa Agricultural herbicides, I: 24, 35, 39, 174–175, 181; II: 137–139 See also Herbicides Agriculture. See Agricultural/forestry workers; Agricultural herbicides; Food crops; Forests Ah receptor (AhR), I: 3, 123, 134; II: 3–4, 51–53, 54–56, 57–62; III: 54–58, 129; IV: 25–26, 29–30, 42, 47, 50–58, 60, 68, 69, 70–73, 76, 80, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 90, 93, 94, 95, 99–100; V: 24–25, 52–55; VI: 55–66 animal studies and, I: 114, 123; II: 3–4, 51–53, 54–56, 57–62, 92–93; III: 33, 34, 35, 54–58, 62–63, 67–69, 129; IV: 48–49, 61–62, 64–67, 74–75; VI: 55–57 anti-estrogenicity and, II: 62; III: 67–69 biological consequences of activation, II: 57; III: 62; IV: 56–60, 323

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 blood abnormalities, I: 125 cacodylic acid acute toxicity, I: 188 cacodylic acid and mechanism of toxicity, II: 50–51; IV: 24 cacodylic acid carcinogenicity, I: 118, 119, 187; IV: 5, 387 cacodylic acid chronic exposure, I: 188–189 cacodylic acid developmental toxicity, I: 189 cacodylic acid genotoxicity, I: 187–188 cacodylic acid mechanism of action, I: 188–189 cacodylic acid pharmokinetics, I: 186–187 cacodylic acid renal toxicity, II: 50–51 cacodylic acid reproductive toxicity, I: 189 cacodylic acid toxicity summary, II: 50; III: 48; IV: 38 cacodylic acid toxicokinetics, I: 188–189; IV: 24, 27, 38 combinatorial interactions, II: 57–58 DNA binding capability and transcription, activation of, II: 56–57; III: 58–61 free radicals and, II: 60; III: 64–65 growth/differentiation signaling, III: 62–63 growth factor and, II: 59 inconsistencies in, II: 57–62 interactions, VI: 58–59 ligand-independent activation, II: 58 multiple forms of, II: 57 nervous system and, I: 161; V: 470–471 protein and, VI: 56–58 protein kinases and, II: 60–62; III: 65–67; IV: 69–71 redox signaling, III: 64–65; IV: 67–69 signaling interactions, II: 59–62; III: 62–69; IV: 60–61, 64, 71–74 structural and functional aspects of, II: 54–56; III: 54–58; IV: 54–56; VI: 56–66 TCDD biologic plausibility and, I: 3, 133–138, 452–453; IV: 4, 25–26, 29, 42, 47–53, 322, 386 TCDD carcinogenicity and, I: 118, 439 TCDD hepatotoxicity and, I: 151, 152, 457; II: 3–4 TCDD immunotoxicity and, I: 122, 150 TCDD interactions with, V: 24–25, 52–54, 309 TCDD reproductive toxicity and, I: 123 TCDD teratogenicity and, I: 159–160 transcriptional-independent responses, II: 58–59 See also ARNT AHS. See Agricultural Health Study AIDS/HIV, I: 338, 527, 541, 695; II: 326; IV: 144, 214, 356, 475, 476 Air Force. See US Air Force Air Force Health Study (AFHS), I: 62–63, 260, 272, 622; II: 284, 293–295, 336; III: 23, 25, 29, 239, 438–439, 495, 505, 514; IV: 13, 232, 233, 234, 235; V: 10, 513; VI: 120, 260, 406, 492 appropriation for, I: 51 autoimmune disease in, I: 698 basal/squamous cell skin cancer in, III: 318, 321, 322; IV: 309 baseline mortality studies, II: 151 birth defects in offspring, II: 286, 293–295; III: 436, 438, 439; IV: 402 bone/joint cancer in, III: 303; IV: 289 cancer and latency in, III: 423, 424, 425, 427 chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy, V: 465–466 circulatory disease in, I: 703–705, 706; II: 336; III: 514, 517; IV: 508–509 cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders, V: 449 data sources, I: 385–386; II: 150–151 diabetes mellitus in, I: 684; II: 330; III: 495, 498–500, 502; IV: 485–487 epidemiological studies, II: 31, 32, 149, 150–152, 154–156, 293–295; III: 28–29, 206–207, 218, 237–240, 303, 309–310, 313–314, 318, 321, 322, 339, 340, 385, 436, 438, 439, 446–447, 449, 452–453, 457–458, 481, 486, 495, 498–500, 502, 505, 506, 507, 510, 513, 514, 517; IV: 291, 294–295, 298, 301, 305–306, 308–311, 313, 327, 329, 331, 334–336, 342, 345, 347, 350, 352, 355, 357, 362, 366, 370, 373, 376, 380, 383 exposure assessment in, I: 279–280, 281, 386; II: 4–5, 101, 103, 109; III: 6, 146–147, 157–158, 162; IV: 123–124 gastrointestinal ulcers in, I: 691; III: 510, 513 immune system disorders in, I: 696 infertility in, II: 280; III: 446–447, 449 laryngeal cancer in, V: 272 lipid abnormalities in, I: 689; II: 333; III: 505, 506, 507; IV: 494 liver toxicity in, II: 332; III: 510, 513; IV: 502

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 low birthweight in, I: 626, 627; III: 457–458 melanoma in, III: 313–314; IV: 303–304 methodology, I: 230–231, 385–386, 445, 757–762 multiple myelomas in, I: 562; II: 244, 245; IV: 373 neurological disorders in, I: 659; IV: 441–443, 445, 454–455, 459 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in, I: 541; IV: 362 participants, I: 722–723; II: 150–152 perinatal death in offspring, III: 452–453 peripheral nervous system disorders in, I: 665; IV: 454–455 porphyria cutanea tarda in, I: 681–682; II: 321–322; III: 481 recommendations for, I: 16–17, 722–724; II: 23, 24; IV: 13; V: 524 reproductive outcomes in, I: 601, 612–613, 632, 633, 727; II: 293–295; III: 436, 438, 439, 446–447, 449, 452–453, 457–458; IV: 403 respiratory cancers in, I: 469; II: 201 respiratory disorders in, I: 711–712; III: 486 role of, I: 53 skin cancers in, II: 209; IV: 303 skin disorders in, I: 678 soft-tissue sarcoma in, I: 492–493; III: 309–310; IV: 294–295 spina bifida in offspring, II: 9, 295–296; III: 7, 8, 9–10, 438 spontaneous abortions in, II: 283–284 status of, I: 53; II: 31–32 TCDD half-life estimates, I: 260–261; II: 104–105; III: 37, 50, 157–158 TCDD serum levels, I: 273, 281, 285, 656; II: 101, 103, 105, 109, 351, 356, 357; III: 146, 147 update of, V: 6 See also Operation Ranch Hand; Ranch Hand study; US Air Force; Vietnam veterans Aktiengesellschaft, Germany, IV: 137 AL-type primary amyloidosis. See Amyloidosis Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), II: 331, 332; III: 45, 509, 510; IV: 37 Alaskan natives Inuit, III: 50–51 See also Race/ethnicity Alberta, Canada, II: 135–136, 232, 242, 246; III: 234–235, 319–320; IV: 149, 198, 229, 312–313; V: 117 Alberta Cancer Registry, III: 235 Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan, III: 235 Alcohol consumption, I: 507 ALL. See Leukemia Allergies, II: 327, 329; III: 487–488; IV: 469–470 See also Immune system disorders ALS. See Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS. See Assembly of Life Sciences Alsea, Oregon, I: 42–43, 372–373, 598 ALT. See Alanine aminotransferase Alzheimer’s disease (AD), V: 6, 449, 451 American Association for the Advancement of Science, I: 29, 92 Herbicide Assessment Commission, I: 30–31 American Cancer Society (ACS), I: 334; II: 177, 181, 189, 191, 204, 205, 209, 211, 217, 223, 228, 231, 239, 245; III: 267, 282, 289, 292, 295, 296, 302, 304, 312, 322, 324, 329, 334, 343, 347, 351, 356, 362, 371, 377, 383; IV: 250, 267, 273, 277, 281, 287, 291, 299, 300, 314, 320, 326, 335, 339, 345, 350, 355, 364, 371, 377; V: 244, 278, 282, 289, 309, 316, 425 Cancer Prevention Study, II: 239; III: 229 American College of Epidemiology, II: 25 American Diabetes Association (ADA), III: 492, 493, 502; V: 485 American Industrial Hygiene Association, II: 25 American Journal of Epidemiology, II: 281 American Legion, I: 60, 278–279, 399, 601–602, 626, 633; II: 113, 157; IV: 133, 158; VI: 120 Vietnam veterans’ epidemiological studies, III: 212–213, 243; V: 126; V: 126, 187; VI: 140 American Public Health Association, II: 25 American Thoracic Society Epidemiology Standardization Questionnaire, II: 136 d-Aminolevulinic acid synthetase, I: 153–154 Amitrole, I: 323 AML. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Herbicides/Dioxin Exposure and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in the Children of Vietnam Veterans (Acute Myelogenous Leukemia) AML. See Leukemia

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 Amsterdam, Netherlands, V: 5, 228–229, 511 Amyloidosis, IV: 2, 7, 11, 511–513; V: 506–507; VI: 471–473 biologic plausibility, VI: 473 scientific literature update, VI: 472 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), V: 6, 461–465, 524; VI: 420–422 biologic plausibility, VI: 420–422 clinical features, V: 461 pesticide exposure and, V: 463–465 pesticide occupational exposure studies, V: 462 scientific literature update, VI: 422 Vietnam veterans’ risk, VI: 422 Anencephaly, IV: 404–405 Angina, I: 708; IV: 135 See also Circulatory disorders Animal studies, III: 394–396, 524; IV: 254, 256, 269, 275, 279, 290, 293–294, 296; V: 35–36; VI: 29–30, 34–41 2,4-D carcinogenicity, I: 118–119, 176–178; II: 48; III: 47, 396; IV: 37; VI: 36–40 2,4-D chronic exposure, I: 179–180; IV: 34 2,4-D developmental toxicity, I: 124, 180–181; III: 46; VI: 38–39 2,4-D disease outcomes and mechanisms of toxicity, II: 48–49; III: 38–39, 44–47; IV: 30–32, 35 2,4-D genotoxicity, I: 178–179; IV: 28, 33; VI: 36–40 2,4-D immunotoxicity, I: 122–123, 181; III: 46, 423; IV: 36; VI: 39 2,4-D lethality, III: 44–45; IV: 35 2,4-D mechanism of action, II: 47–48; III: 44; IV: 33; VI: 40–41 2,4-D mechanism of toxicity, II: 48–49; IV: 28, 37; VI: 36 2,4-D neurotoxicity, II: 48; III: 45–46, 473; IV: 30, 35; VI: 37 2,4-D pharmacokinetics, I: 175 2,4-D reproductive toxicity, I: 124, 180, 181; III: 46; IV: 29, 36; VI: 38–39 2,4-D toxicity profile update summary, II: 46; IV: 33 2,4-D toxicokinetics, II: 46–47; III: 43–44; IV: 24, 27; VI: 34–36 2,4,5-T acute toxicity, I: 184 2,4,5-T carcinogenicity, I: 118, 119, 182–184; III: 396 2,4,5-T chronic exposure, I: 184 2,4,5-T developmental/reproductive toxicity, I: 124, 185; II: 49–50 2,4,5-T genotoxicity, I: 184 2,4,5-T immunotoxicity, I: 123 2,4,5-T mechanism of action, III: 47–48 2,4,5-T mechanism of toxicity, II: 49–50; IV: 37 2,4,5-T pharmacokinetics, I: 182 2,4,5-T toxicity profile update summary, II: 49; IV: 37 2,4,5-T toxicokinetics, II: 49; III: 47; IV: 37 Ah receptor, I: 3, 123, 134; II: 3–4, 51–53, 54–56, 57–62; III: 54–58, 129; IV: 4, 30, 386 amyloidosis, IV: 512 blood abnormalities, I: 125; IV: 496 breast cancer, IV: 29, 317–318 cacodylic acid acute toxicity, I: 188 cacodylic acid carcinogenicity, I: 118, 119, 187; IV: 5, 387 cacodylic acid chronic exposure, I: 188–189 cacodylic acid developmental toxicity, I: 189 cacodylic acid genotoxicity, I: 187–188 cacodylic acid mechanism of action, II: 50; III: 49–50 cacodylic acid mechanism of toxicity, II: 50–51; IV: 24; VI: 41–43 cacodylic acid pharmacokinetics, I: 186–187 cacodylic acid renal toxicity, II: 50–51 cacodylic acid reproductive toxicity, I: 189 cacodylic acid toxicity summary, II: 50; IV: 38 cacodylic acid toxicokinetics, II: 50; III: 48; IV: 24, 27, 38; VI: 41 characteristics of, I: 111–114; IV: 48 epidemiologic studies, IV: 359, 361, 369, 381 evidentiary role, I: 228; IV: 85, 106, 385, 515–516 generalizability, I: 112, 113, 114, 118, 122–123, 160; IV: 26, 85, 426, 459 hepatic abnormalities, I: 124–125, 688; IV: 25, 57, 59–60 human health relevance of toxicology, III: 35–36; IV: 26, 48 male-mediated disorders, I: 593–594 nonhuman primates, I: 151 picloram in, I: 118, 119, 125, 190–192; III: 51

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 research recommendations, V: 526–527 squamous cell carcinomas, IV: 284 TCDD acute toxicity, II: 75–76 TCDD and bladder cancer in, IV: 342 TCDD and bone/joint cancer in, IV: 290 TCDD and Hodgkin’s disease in, IV: 367 TCDD and leukemia disease in, IV: 380 TCDD and multiple myeloma in, IV: 374 TCDD and nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer in, IV: 275 TCDD and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in, IV: 358 TCDD and prostate cancer in, IV: 332 TCDD and soft-tissue sarcoma in, IV: 279 TCDD carcinogenicity, I: 3, 116, 138–142; II: 3, 65–68; IV: 26, 305, 311 TCDD cardiovascular toxicity, I: 171; II: 76; III: 74–75 TCDD dermal toxicity, I: 173–174; II: 76 TCDD developmental toxicity, I: 123–124, 156–157, 159–160; II: 3, 71, 72–73; III: 92–105; IV: 58 TCDD disease outcomes, II: 3; III: 39–43, 71–105; IV: 3, 23 TCDD endocrine effects, III: 83–84 TCDD gastrointestinal toxicity, I: 169–170; IV: 256 TCDD hepatotoxicity, I: 124–125, 151–156; II: 3, 73–75; III: 76–79 TCDD immunotoxicity, I: 119–122, 146–151; II: 3, 68–71; III: 85–92; IV: 3, 26 TCDD-induced diabetes, IV: 488 TCDD-induced wasting syndrome, I: 162–166; II: 76–77; III: 80–83; IV: 57, 76 TCDD lethality, III: 71–73; IV: 76 TCDD mechanism of action, II: 3, 54–65; III: 51–53, 54–58, 62–63, 67–69; IV: 3, 24 TCDD mechanism of toxicity, II: 65–77 TCDD metabolic toxicity, I: 166–169 TCDD neurotoxicity, I: 160–166; II: 3, 75; III: 84–85; IV: 352, 458 TCDD pharmacokinetics, I: 127–133 TCDD renal toxicity, II: 77; III: 75–76; IV: 348 TCDD reproductive toxicity, I: 123–124, 156–159; II: 3, 71–72; III: 92–105; IV: 26, 64, 323, 337, 411, 432, 434 TCDD respiratory tract toxicity, I: 170 TCDD toxicity update summary, II: 51–53 TCDD toxicokinetics, II: 3, 53–54; III: 4–5, 33; IV: 3, 23, 41, 47 toxicity, potential health risks and contributing factors, III: 106, 107, 108; VI: 45–47 Anthropometry. See Body weight AOR. See Agent Orange Registry Aphasia, V: 447 Apoptosis, TCDD and, II: 3, 67 Arctic region natives, III: 50–51; VI: 226 Argentina, III: 224; VI: 125 Arkansas, I: 373–374, 663; III: 234; IV: 149, 231; V: 117; VI: 133 Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, I: 494 Army. See US Army Army Chemical Corps. See US Army Chemical Corps Army Reserve Personnel Center, II: 152 ARNT, II: 4, 45, 55, 56, 57, 58, 66; III: 38, 54–58, 63; IV: 30, 47–56, 61, 67, 69–73, 86 See also Ah receptor (AhR) Arsenic cacodylic acid component, IV: 117–118; V: 4, 21; VI: 21 respiratory cancer and latency, II: 268; III: 420 Arsenic in Drinking Water, V: 21, 38; VI: 21, 42 Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, I: 135, 153, 155–156, 170 Aryl hydrocarbon receptor. See Ah receptor Asbestos, respiratory cancer and latency, II: 268; III: 420 Asia, III: 471; VI: 203, 221, 226, 233 See also Southeast Asia; individual countries Asian Americans, II: 188 See also Race/ethnicity Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), II: 331, 333; III: 45, 509; IV: 37 Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS), I: 62, 63 Association of Birth Defect Children, II: 292 AST. See Aspartate aminotransferase Asthma, I: 708, 711, 713; IV: 199 See also Respiratory disorders Astrocytomas, V: 525 Ataxia, I: 658 See also Motor/coordination dysfunction; Neurobehavioral toxicity Atlanta, Georgia, II: 241, 296; III: 229

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 CDC Birth Defects Study, II: 9; III: 438; IV: 237 Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, I: 387 Atlantic Ocean, III: 108 Australia, I: 61, 91, 340, 406, 418, 444, 470, 488–489, 537, 546, 614–615, 633, 702, 710; II: 113, 132, 149, 160, 202, 293; III: 216–217, 218, 237, 244–245; IV: 8, 10, 144, 150, 159, 210, 304; VI: 128 Air Force veterans, III: 244 Army veterans, III: 244, 245; IV: 159; VI: 141 Australian National Service Vietnam veterans, III: 273, 286 Bureau of Statistics Health Interview Survey, 1989-1990, III: 245, 485, 511, 517 Department of Defense, III: 244, 245 Department of Veterans Affairs, III: 244, 245 Electoral Commission rolls, III: 245 Health Insurance Medicare, III: 245 herbicide use by forces, III: 137–138 lung cancer mortality in Vietnam veterans, III: 424 National Death Index, III: 245 Navy veterans, III: 244 Victorian Cancer Registry, III: 232; IV: 144; VI: 128 Vietnam veterans epidemiologic studies, III: 9, 273, 285–286, 290, 294, 295, 298, 299, 303, 310, 311, 314, 315, 327, 329, 339, 340, 343, 346, 349, 353, 355, 359, 365, 380, 389, 469, 486, 489, 500, 506, 512–513, 517; IV: 244–247, 255, 259, 262, 264, 266, 272, 276, 280, 283, 287, 295, 298–299, 305–308, 310, 313, 319, 323–326, 332, 334–335, 337, 339, 345, 350, 355, 362–363, 371, 376, 380, 383, 404–405; V: 127–128, 191–193, 324, 420 See also Tasmania Austria, IV: 138–139, 189, 467–468, 500 Autoimmune disease, I: 697–699; IV: 475–481 See also Immune system disorders; Systemic autoimmune disease; Systemic lupus erythematosus Autoimmunity, I: 693, 697–699; II: 7, 21, 327, 329; III: 487–488; IV: 476–477 See also Immune system disorders Axonal nerve damage, VI: 428 B B cell function, I: 147, 148 Baltic Sea, II: 329; III: 108, 236, 272, 285, 358, 484, 515 Baltimore, Maryland, V: 5, 400 Baltimore-Washington Infant Study, V: 400 Basal/squamous cell skin cancer biologic plausibility, III: 322; IV: 311; V: 300; VI: 264–265 epidemiologic studies, III: 317–322, 323; V: 296, 297–298, 299; VI: 261–265 herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 323; IV: 229, 309; V: 297–298, 299 herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 321, 323; IV: 309; V: 296, 297, 298–299 herbicides association with, III: 317–322, 323; V: 295–300 incidence, III: 319–320 morbidity studies, V: 297–298 mortality studies, III: 319, 321; V: 296 scientific literature update, III: 319–320; IV: 309; V: 296, 298–299; VI: 261 Vietnam veterans and, III: 323; V: 298; VI: 265 See also Melanomas; Skin cancer BASF, I: 312–313, 444, 530, 550, 558; II: 130–131, 238, 318–319, 325, 330–331, 332–333, 334, 336; III: 153, 154, 174, 221–222, 269–270, 273, 297, 349, 484, 495, 506, 511; IV: 112, 188–189, 257, 260, 271, 285, 290, 301, 333, 343–344, 368, 382; V: 108, 135–136; VI: 123, 425 Aktiengesellschaft, III: 221; IV: 137 Dioxin Investigation Programme, II: 131 Occupational Safety and Employee Protection Department, II: 131 Basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH), II: 54, 55, 56; IV: 49 Bayer, III: 154; IV: 112 Beck’s Depression Inventory, I: 650, 651 Belgium, VI: 133, 181, 447, 476–477 Benefits. See Compensation, veterans BHLH. See Basic helix-loop-helix Bias in an investigation, V: 22; VI: 23 methodological. See Methodological bias publication, VI: 30–31 Binghamton, New York, III: 234; IV: 149; V: 117

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 Biochemical warfare, I: 29, 45 Biologic plausibility, II: 88, 92; III: 2, 124, 128; IV: 2–3, 16, 20–22, 26, 29, 106–107, 249, 385–388; V: 4, 378–381, 516–518; VI: 18, 24–25, 483–485 Ah receptor-TCDD interaction, I: 3, 133–137, 439, 452–453; III: 129; IV: 48, 86 altered sperm parameters, I: 634; III: 451 amyloidosis, V: 505; VI: 473 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, VI: 420–422 animal studies, I: 228; II: 176; III: 460–462, 474–475; IV: 431–435 basal/squamous cell skin cancer, III: 322; V: 300; VI: 264–265 birth defects, II: 298; III: 444; IV: 403; V: 404; VI: 365 bladder cancer, III: 351; IV: 342–343; V: 333; VI: 291 bone/joint cancer, I: 474; III: 304; IV: 290; V: 282; VI: 245 brain tumors, I: 525; III: 362; IV: 352; V: 343; VI: 302 breast cancer, II: 217; III: 327, 329; IV: 317–318; V: 309; VI: 269–270 carcinogenicity, I: 116–118, 119, 146, 176–178, 182–184, 187, 190–191, 439, 451; II: 176; III: 394–397; IV: 385–387 childhood cancer, I: 630; II: 300; IV: 426; VI: 389 chloracne, I: 678; II: 320–321; III: 480; IV: 466; V: 479; VI: 438 circulatory disorders, I: 708; III: 518; IV: 510; V: 505–506; VI: 471 diabetes mellitus, I: 692; II: 335; III: 502–503; IV: 488; V: 492; VI: 456 endometrial cancer, IV: 322 endometriosis, VI: 478 evidentiary role of, I: 111, 114, 223–224, 240–241, 434; II: 88, 92, 176; III: 23, 106–107; V: 23–24 female reproductive system cancers, I: 512; III: 334; IV: 323; V: 316 fetal/neonatal/infant death, I: 624; III: 453 gastrointestinal disorders, III: 513–514; V: 502; VI: 466 gastrointestinal tract cancers, III: 281–282; IV: 256; V: 246; VI: 221 genitourinary tract cancers, I: 521–522 genotoxicity, I: 178–179, 184, 187–188, 191 hepatobiliary cancer, I: 453, 457; III: 286, 288; IV: 270; V: 263–264; VI: 225–226 Hodgkin’s disease, I: 557; III: 377; IV: 367; V: 361; VI: 319 hormonal effects, VI: 394–397 hyperlipidemia, I: 692 immune system disorders, VI: 447–448 immunotoxicity, I: 122, 146–151, 181, 192, 699; III: 491 infertility, I: 634; II: 282; III: 451; VI: 372 kidney cancer, V: 338 laryngeal cancer, III: 295; IV: 279; V: 271–272; VI: 234 leukemia, I: 571; III: 390; IV: 380–381; V: 372, 376; VI: 333, 337 lipid and lipoprotein disorders, VI: 459–463 liver disorders, I: 691–692; II: 335; III: 513–514; IV: 270 low birthweight outcomes, I: 628; III: 458; V: 425; VI: 382–383 lung cancer, III: 302; IV: 284; V: 278 male-mediated reproductive outcomes, I: 593–595; III: 451; IV: 413, 416–417, 426 melanoma, III: 317; IV: 305; V: 295; VI: 260 motor/coordination dysfunction, I: 661; III: 475; IV: 448 multiple myeloma, I: 12, 563; III: 383; IV: 374; V: 366; VI: 325 nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer, I: 460; III: 292; IV: 275; V: 268; VI: 230 neurobehavioral disorders, II: 314; III: 474–475; VI: 409 neuropsychological disorders, I: 658; IV: 457–459; VI: 429–430 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, I: 549; III: 366; IV: 358–359; V: 355; VI: 312 parkinsonism, VI: 419–420 perinatal death, III: 453, 458; IV: 413; V: 422; VI: 379 peripheral nervous system disorders, I: 666; V: 470–472; VI: 428 porphyria cutanea tarda, I: 679, 682; II: 323; III: 482; IV: 468; V: 480 prostate cancer, III: 343; IV: 331–332; V: 323–324; VI: 282–283 renal cancers, III: 356; IV: 348 renal toxicity, I: 179–180 reproductive outcomes, I: 123–124, 180–181, 185, 189, 192, 605, 618, 628; II: 300–301; III: 458, 460–462; IV: 411; VI: 394–397

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 respiratory cancers, I: 472 respiratory disorders, I: 713; III: 486; V: 482; VI: 443 sex ratio, VI: 393–394 skin cancer, I: 503; IV: 305, 311; VI: 260 soft-tissue sarcoma, I: 500; III: 311; IV: 296; V: 287; VI: 251 spontaneous abortion, V: 420; VI: 378 squamous cell carcinomas, IV: 284 testicular cancer, III: 347; IV: 337; V: 327 thyroid homeostasis, VI: 481 See also TCDD biologic plausibility Biological samples, I: 20–21, 729–730 Biomarkers chloracne as, I: 4, 10, 172–173, 262, 401, 672–674; II: 318; V: 478 exposure assessment and, I: 259–262, 280–284; II: 101–104; sperm parameters as, I: 631 III: 146–147; IV: 111, 123, 448, 479 research recommendations, I: 17, 725; II: 25 Bionetics Research Laboratory, I: 30 Birth defects biologic plausibility, III: 444; IV: 403; V: 404; VI: 365 definition of, I: 605–606; II: 286; III: 435; IV: 400; V: 393–394 epidemiologic studies, II: 140, 286–296; III: 436, 437–438, 443; IV: 247, 403; V: 404; VI: 355–365 epidemiology, I: 606; II: 286; III: 435–436 evaluation of epidemiologic data, I: 615–618; IV: 144–145, 403 herbicide association first reports, I: 1 herbicide association in, I: 13–14, 618; II: 7, 11, 20, 286–296; III: 436–444; IV 400–405; V: 393–405 herbicide environmental exposure studies, I: 608–609; II: 140, 287–288, 297; III: 437; V: 394, 400–402; VI: 363 herbicide occupational exposure studies, I: 607–608; II: 286–287, 297; III: 437; IV: 197; V: 394–395; VI: 362 Ranch Hand participants’ children and, II: 293–296; III: 436, 438, 439; IV: 18; V: 16; VI: 15 risk factors of, I: 606–607; II: 298; III: 444; V: 405 scientific literature update, III: 437, 439–443; IV: 401–402; V: 394–403, 433–437; VI: 362–365 Seveso, Italy, study, II: 287; III: 436 summary, II: 295–296; IV: 400–401 TCDD association with, V: 5, 434, 439–441 TCDD biologic plausibility in, I: 618; II: 298; III: 460–461 Vietnam veterans’ children and, I: 609–615, 618; II: 288–296, 297, 298; III: 435, 436, 437–438; IV: 403; V: 396–398; VI: 364 See also Cleft lip/palate; Neural tube defects; Reproductive disorders; Spina bifida; Teratogenicity Birth Defects Study, II: 9, 290–291, 296; III: 147, 436, 438, 439; IV: 405, 429 See also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Births. See Birth defects; Low birthweight; Perinatal death; Preterm delivery (PTD) Bladder cancer and disorders Birthweight. See Low birthweight biologic plausibility, III: 351; IV: 342–343; V: 333; VI: 291 epidemiologic studies, I: 515–517; II: 225–227; III: 347–351; IV: 19, 339–347, 385, 387; V: 5, 17, 330–332, 333; VI: 286–292 epidemiology, II: 223; III: 347 herbicide association in, I: 12, 521, 576; II: 7, 12, 21, 225–227, 250; III: 3, 10, 21, 132, 347–351; IV: 19, 31, 40; V: 17, 21, 328–333; VI: 16–17 herbicide environmental exposure and, III: 349, 350–351; IV: 341; V: 329, 331–332 herbicide occupational exposure and, III: 348, 350; IV: 340–341; V: 329, 330 histopathology, I: 513 incidence, I: 513 incidence, data by age/gender/race, for selected age groups, III: 347; IV: 340; V: 328; VI: 287 risk factors, I: 513–514; V: 333 scientific literature update, II: 226–227; III: 348–349; IV: 340; V: 329, 332; VI: 291 TCDD association with, IV: 19, 24; V: 5 Vietnam veterans’ risk, I: 513, 517, 522; II: 223, 226; III: 349, 351; V: 333; VI: 292 See also Genitourinary cancers Body mass index (BMI), II: 281; III: 499, 502 Body weight, loss of and TCDD, II: 3

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 herbicide exposure assessment, III: 151; IV: 139 Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank, IV: 445 See also Scotland; Yorkshire, England United Nations, I: 45 United Paperworkers International Union, III: 232 Update 1996. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1996 Update 1998. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998 Update 2000. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000 Update 2002. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2002 UPDRS. See Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Uppsala, Sweden, III: 228 Urinary bladder cancer. See Bladder cancer and disorders UROD. See Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD), II: 321; III: 480, 481 Uroporphyrins, increases in, VI: 7 US Air Force, I: 81, 113; III: 29, 138, 218, 237, 239, 339, 513, 517; VI: 24 Armstrong Laboratory, Population Research Branch, III: 29 Baseline Morbidity Report, II: 32 Baseline Mortality Report, 1982, II: 31 Follow-Up Examination Results, 1985, 1987, 1992, II: 32 Human Resources Laboratory records, II: 150, 152; III: 237 Military Personnel Center records, II: 151; III: 238; IV: 151; VI: 136 Mortality Updates, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1989, 1991, II: 32 Reproductive Outcomes, II: 32 Serum Dioxin Level Follow-Up Examination Results, II: 32 TCDD half-life investigations, II: 104–105 Vietnam casualties, I: 83 women veterans mortality studies, II: 152–153 See also Air Force Health Study (AFHS); Operation Ranch Hand; Ranch Hand study US Army, I: 81, 280, 281, 702; II: 140, 185; IV: 121–122, 126 Army Chemical Corps Vietnam Veterans Health Study proposal, II: 24 Army I Corps, IV: 157 Environmental Support Group (ESG), II: 152 Vietnam casualties, I: 83 Vietnam veteran studies, II: 201, 226, 244; III: 240, 241, 283, 294, 298, 313, 315, 318, 338, 339, 344, 346, 348, 365, 373, 380, 485, 512, 517; IV: 21 women veterans mortality studies, II: 152–153, 201 See also US Army Chemical Corps (ACC); US Special Forces US Army Chemical Corps (ACC), I: 13, 15, 16–17, 94–95, 272, 273, 286, 394, 470, 571, 703–704, 705, 711, 722–725; II: 5, 23, 24, 101, 103, 104, 201–202, 245; III: 6, 23, 138–139, 146–147, 241, 272, 298, 309, 314, 344, 358–359, 385, 389, 485, 512, 517; IV: 120–124, 157, 287; V: 10–11, 233–234, 525; VI: 4, 140, 188, 492 US Coast Guard, I: 81 US Congress, I: 2, 31, 46–52; III: 25–28, 237, 240; VI: 138 See also Congressional hearings; Legislation US Marine Corps, I: 81, 96, 280, 545, 702, 710; II: 185, 201, 226, 244; III: 140; IV: 121 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in, I: 542, 545, 546–547 Vietnam casualties, I: 83 Vietnam veterans studies, III: 241, 242, 283, 294, 298, 309, 313, 315, 338, 339, 346, 348, 365, 373, 380, 485, 489, 512, 517; IV: 287, 298, 339 women veterans mortality studies, II: 152–153 US Military Assistance Command, III: 138; IV: 119; VI: 183 US Navy, I: 81, 280–281, 286; II: 185, 228; III: 339, 344 herbicide use in, I: 95; II: 104; III: 135, 139, 140 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma odds ratio in, I: 542 Vietnam casualties, I: 83 women veterans mortality studies, II: 152–153 US Special Forces, I: 286; II: 103–104; III: 138 USDA. See Department of Agriculture, US

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 USSR, I: 317; III: 224 See also Russia Utah, I: 560; II: 241 Uterine cancer, I: 506; III: 329, 333; V: 312; VI: 80–81 herbicide association evidence, I: 13; II: 6, 211, 213; III: 333; IV: 323–324; VI: 273 See also Reproductive system cancers, women UV. See Ultraviolet radiation V Valcular heart disease, VI: 7 VAO. See Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam Verona, Missouri, II: 128–129; III: 219, 220; IV: 135, 148; V: 105 Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptors, II: 333; III: 503 VES. See Vietnam Experience Study Veterans. See Foreign veterans; Vietnam veterans; Women veterans Veterans Administration. See Department of Veterans Affairs, US (DVA) Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam (VAO), II: 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12, 35, 45, 63, 65, 71, 89, 90, 91, 96, 97, 99, 101, 102, 104, 107, 112, 132, 176, 179, 180, 181, 187, 190, 196, 207, 209, 210, 214, 218, 225, 228, 232, 236, 237, 246, 247, 249, 250, 266, 271, 278, 279, 286, 293, 296, 300, 305, 312, 323, 328, 357; III: 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 32, 43, 85, 124, 125, 126, 132, 150, 157, 169, 220, 221, 223, 286, 303, 311, 320, 359, 389, 390, 416, 434, 435, 519, 522; IV: 5, 156–159; V: 1–2, 12–14, 16–18, 20–21, 104; VI: 2–3, 11, 20, 33–34, 119, 121–124, 126, 129, 133, 135 background, II: 17–19; III: 17–23; IV: 15, 103–104, 110, 132, 137, 249, 268, 351 basal/squamous cell skin cancer studies summary, III: 317–318, 321, 323; IV: 308, 312–313; V: 295–296 birth defects studies summary, III: 436–439; IV: 400–401, 404, 435; V: 394 bladder cancer studies summary, II: 225–226; III: 347–348, 350–351; IV: 340, 343–345; V: 329 bone/joint cancer studies summary, II: 204; III: 302, 305; IV: 288, 290–291; V: 279 brain tumor studies summary, II: 229; III: 356–357, 360, 361; IV: 351, 353–355; V: 339 breast cancer studies summary, III: 324–326, 328; IV: 314–315, 319–320; V: 301 childhood cancer studies summary, II: 299; IV: 418, 429 chloracne studies summary, II: 318; III: 479–480; IV: 465; V: 478 chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy studies summary, II: 310; IV: 454 circulatory disorders studies summary, II: 335–336; III: 514; IV: 506; V: 503 cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders studies summary, II: 307; III: 468–469; IV: 441–442; V: 448–449 congressional hearings on Agent Orange, II: 27–28; III: 25 Department of Veterans Affairs Task Force, II: 4–26; III: 24–25 diabetes mellitus studies summary, II: 330; III: 496–497; IV: 482, 487, 488, 490, 492; V: 486 federal government response to concerns over military use of herbicides in Vietnam, II: 27–32; III: 25–30 female reproductive cancers studies summary, II: 211–212; III: 330–331, 332, 333; IV: 321, 324–325 gastrointestinal tract tumors studies summary, II: 177–178; III: 268, 274–281; IV: 251, 256; V: 244–245 gastrointestinal ulcers studies summary, II: 334; III: 510; IV: 500; V: 500 health outcomes conclusions, II: 19–23; III: 19–20; IV: 11, 18–19, 20, 21, 384, 385, 414, 465, 467, 471, 513, 514; V: 6–9; VI: 13–18 hepatobiliary cancers studies summary, III: 282–283, 287–288; IV: 268, 269; V: 259–260 herbicide environmental exposure studies, II: 142–143, 144, 145–146; III: 197–202, 203–205, 275, 277, 279, 281, 283, 288, 291, 301, 316, 323, 328, 336, 342, 345, 350–351, 354, 369, 382, 392, 437, 454, 455, 456, 459, 479, 520; IV: 147–149, 261, 264, 266–267, 271–272, 276, 286, 291

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 herbicide occupational exposure studies, II: 114, 115–116, 117–118, 119–120, 121–126; III: 170–174, 176–178, 180–182, 183–185, 188–196, 274–275, 276–277, 278–279, 280, 282–283, 286, 291, 294, 300–301, 305, 310, 312, 316, 317, 321, 323, 324–326, 328, 332, 333, 335–336, 345, 350, 354, 360, 367–369, 374–376, 381–382, 391–392, 454, 455, 456, 459, 496, 520; IV: 137, 139, 140–142, 144–146, 257–261, 263, 265–266, 271, 276, 280, 285, 290 Hodgkin’s disease studies summary, II: 235; III: 372, 374–375, 376; IV: 365, 368; V: 356 immune system disorders, studies summary, II: 327; III: 488–489; IV: 477; V: 484 impact of report, II: 24–26; III: 23–25 infertility studies summary, II: 280; III: 445–446, 450; IV: 406, 409 laryngeal cancer studies summary, III: 293, 294; IV: 277, 280; V: 268–269 legislation on Agent Orange, II: 28–29; III: 26–27 leukemia studies summary, II: 245; III: 385–386, 391–392; IV: 378–379, 381, 383; V: 368 lipid abnormalities studies summary, II: 333; III: 504, 520, 521; IV: 483 liver toxicity studies summary, II: 332; III: 510; IV: 500 low birthweight studies summary, III: 456–457, 459; IV: 399, 400, 412; V: 423 lung cancer studies summary, III: 296, 300–301; IV: 281, 285–286; V: 273 melanoma studies summary, III: 313–314, 316, 317; IV: 302, 306; V: 290 metabolic and digestive disorders, studies summary, II: 330, 332, 333, 334; IV: 500 motor/coordination dysfunction studies summary, II: 309; III: 469–470; IV: 443–444 multiple myeloma studies summary, III: 377–378, 381–382; IV: 372, 375–376; V: 362 nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer studies summary, III: 290, 291; IV: 274; V: 265, 274 neuroblastoma, V: 426 next edition of, VI: 94 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma studies summary, II: 231–232; III: 362–363, 367–369, 370–371; IV: 356, 360–363; V: 344 perinatal death studies summary, II: 285; III: 451, 454, 455, 456; IV: 412 peripheral neuropathy studies summary, III: 470–471, 473; IV: 454 porphyria cutanea tarda studies summary, II: 321–322; III: 481–482; IV: 467; V: 479 prostate cancer studies summary, III: 335–336, 341, 342; IV: 327, 333–335; V: 317–318 renal cancer studies summary, II: 224; III: 352–353, 354, 355; IV: 346, 349–350 research recommendations, II: 23–24; III: 23; IV: 21 respiratory disorders studies summary, II: 324–325; III: 483; IV: 471; V: 481 sex ratios of offspring, IV: 429–430; V: 433 skin cancer studies summary, III: 312; IV: 299–314 soft-tissue sarcomas studies summary, II: 205–206; III: 306–308; IV: 292, 297–299; V: 283 spontaneous abortion studies summary, II: 283; IV: 410; V: 410 summary of, II: 37–42 toxicology, overview, III: 36; IV: 22, 38, 41; V: 30–31; VI: 33 Veterans and Agent Orange: Herbicides/Dioxin Exposure and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in the Children of Vietnam Veterans (Acute Myelogenous Leukemia), V: 2, 13, 14, 16–17, 21; VI: 2, 12, 16 Veterans and Agent Orange: Herbicides/Dioxin Exposure and Type 2 Diabetes (Type 2 Diabetes), IV: 1, 10–11, 16, 104; V: 2, 12–13, 16, 486–487; VI: 2, 12, 15, 135 Veterans and Agent Orange: Length of Presumptive Period for Association Between Exposure and Respiratory Cancer, VI: 12, 27, 135 Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1996 (Update 1996), III: 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 32, 37, 43, 44, 50, 85, 106, 109, 125, 126, 132, 150, 157, 159, 169, 220, 221, 222, 223, 266, 286, 295, 298, 303, 309, 311, 319, 320, 339, 349, 359, 389, 390, 416, 417–418, 424, 426, 428, 434, 435, 444, 458, 519, 522, 533; IV: 1; V: 2, 12–14,

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 16–18; VI: 2, 11, 33–34, 121–129, 133, 135 background, III: 17–23; IV: 15–21, 110, 132, 137, 247, 251 basal/squamous cell skin cancer studies summary, III: 317–318, 321, 323; IV: 308–314; V: 295–296 birth defects studies summary, III: 436–439; IV: 400–401, 435; V: 394 bladder cancer studies summary, III: 347–348, 350; IV: 330–345; V: 329 bone/joint cancer studies summary, III: 302, 305; IV: 287–291; V: 279 brain tumor studies summary, III: 356–357, 360, 361; IV: 350–355; V: 339 breast cancer studies summary, III: 324–326, 327, 328; IV: 314–320; V: 301 childhood cancers, IV: 418 chloracne studies summary, III: 479–480; IV: 465; V: 478 circulatory disorders studies summary, III: 514; IV: 506; V: 503 cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders studies summary, III: 468–469; IV: 441–442; V: 448–449 congressional hearings on Agent Orange, III: 25 Department of Veterans Affairs Task Force, III: 24–25 diabetes mellitus studies summary, III: 496; IV: 482–483, 490; V: 486 federal government response to concerns over military use of herbicides in Vietnam, III: 25–30 female reproductive system cancers studies summary, III: 330–331, 332, 333; IV: 321–326; V: 310 gastrointestinal tract tumors studies summary, III: 268, 274–281; IV: 257–264; V: 244–245 gastrointestinal ulcers studies summary, III: 510; IV: 500; V: 500 health outcomes conclusions, III: 19–20; VI: 13–18 hepatobiliary cancers studies summary, III: 282–283, 287–288; IV: 267–272; V: 259–260 herbicide environmental exposure studies, III: 197, 201, 203, 275, 277, 279, 283, 288, 323, 328, 336, 342, 345, 354, 369, 375, 382, 392; IV: 147, 149 herbicide occupational exposure studies, III: 170, 172, 174, 175–176, 179, 183, 186–187, 274, 276, 278, 280, 282–283, 286, 291, 294, 300, 305, 316, 317, 321, 324–326, 328, 332, 333, 335–336, 345, 350, 354, 360, 367, 374, 381, 391, 496; IV: 135–137, 140–142, 144 Hodgkin’s disease studies summary, III: 373, 374, 375, 376; IV: 364–371; V: 356 impact of report, III: 23–25 infertility studies summary, III: 445–446; IV: 406–408 laryngeal cancer studies summary, III: 293, 294; IV: 277–281; V: 268–269 legislation on Agent Orange, III: 26–27 leukemia studies summary, III: 385–386, 391, 392; IV: 377–383; V: 368 lipid abnormalities studies summary, III: 504; IV: 493 liver disorders studies summary, III: 510; IV: 500 low birthweight studies summary, III: 456–457; IV: 412; V: 423 lung cancer studies summary, III: 296, 298, 300; IV: 281–287; V: 273 melanoma studies summary, III: 313–314, 316, 317; IV: 302–308; V: 290 motor/coordination dysfunction studies summary, III: 469–470; IV: 444 multiple myeloma studies summary, III: 377–378, 381, 382; IV: 371–377; V: 362 nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer studies summary, III: 290, 291; IV: 273–276; V: 265 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma studies summary, III: 362–363, 367, 369, 370; IV: 355–364; V: 344 pancreatic cancer, IV: 264–267 perinatal death studies summary, III: 451; IV: 412 peripheral neuropathy studies summary, III: 470–471, 473; IV: 18 porphyria cutanea tarda studies summary, III: 481–482; IV: 467; V: 479 prostate cancer studies summary, III: 335–336, 341, 342; IV: 326–335; V: 317–318 renal cancers studies summary, III: 352–353, 354, 355; IV: 345–350

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 research recommendations, III: 23 respiratory disorders studies summary, III: 483; IV: 471–472; V: 481 sex ratios of offspring, IV: 429–430; V: 433 skin cancer, IV: 299–301 soft-tissue sarcoma studies summary, III: 306–308; IV: 291–299; V: 283 testicular cancer studies summary, III: 343–344, 345; IV: 335–339; V: 325 toxicology, overview, III: 36; IV: 22; V: 30–31; VI: 33 Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998 (Update 1998), V: 2, 12–14, 16–18; VI: 2, 11, 33–34, 121–129, 133, 135 Australian Veterans, IV: 159 background of, IV: 1, 3, 8–10, 110, 132, 247, 251, 399–400 basal/squamous cell skin cancer studies summary, IV: 308–314; V: 295–296 birth defects studies summary, IV: 400–401, 435; V: 394 bladder cancer studies summary, IV: 330–345; V: 329 bone/joint cancer studies summary, IV: 287–291; V: 279 brain tumor studies summary, IV: 350–355; V: 339 breast cancer studies summary, IV: 314–320; V: 301 childhood cancers, IV: 418, 426 cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders studies summary, V: 448–449 Department of Veterans Affairs and, IV: 157–158 environmental exposure, IV: 148–149 epidemiology, IV: 257 female reproductive system cancers studies summary, IV: 321–326; V: 310 gastrointestinal tract tumors studies summary, IV: 257–264; V: 244–245 health outcomes conclusions; VI: 13–18 hepatobiliary cancers studies summary, IV: 267–272; V: 259–260 Hodgkin’s disease studies summary, IV: 364–371; V: 356 infertility studies summary, IV: 406–408 laryngeal cancer studies summary, IV: 277–281; V: 268–269 leukemia studies summary, IV: 377–383; V: 368 low birthweight studies summary, IV: 412; V: 423 lung cancer studies summary, IV: 281–287; V: 273 melanoma studies summary, IV: 302–308; V: 290 mortality in, IV: 254 multiple myeloma studies summary, IV: 371–377; V: 362 nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer studies summary, IV: 273–276; V: 265 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma studies summary, IV: 355–364; V: 344 occupational exposure, IV: 135–137, 139–142, 144 Operation Ranch Hand, IV: 150, 152 pancreatic cancer, IV: 264–267 prostate cancer studies summary, IV: 326–335; V: 317–318 quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, V: 27 renal cancers studies summary, IV: 345–350 sex ratios of offspring, IV: 429–430; V: 433 skin cancer, IV: 299–301 soft-tissue sarcoma studies summary, IV: 291–299; V: 283 spontaneous abortion, IV: 408–412; V: 410 testicular cancer studies summary, IV: 335–339; V: 325 toxicology overview, IV: 22; V: 30–31; VI: 33 Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000 (Update 2000), V: 2, 12–18, 21, 103; VI: 2, 11, 21, 33–34, 58, 121–126, 129 basal/squamous cell skin cancer studies summary, IV: 308–314; V: 295–296 birth defects studies summary, V: 394 bladder cancer studies summary, V: 329 bone/joint cancer studies summary, V: 279 brain tumor studies summary, V: 339 breast cancer studies summary, IV: 314–320; V: 301 carcinogenicity, V: 37 cell stress responses, V: 34 cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders studies summary, V: 449–450 developmental toxicity, V: 35–36 disease outcomes, V: 34–37 energy metabolism, V: 33–34 female reproductive system cancers studies summary, V: 310 gastrointestinal tract tumors studies summary, V: 244–245

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 genotoxic effects, V: 33 health outcomes conclusions, VI: 13–18 Hodgkin’s disease studies summary, V: 356 immunotoxicity, V: 37 laryngeal cancer studies summary, V: 268–269 leukemia studies summary, V: 368 lung cancer studies summary, V: 273 mechanisms of toxic action, V: 33–34 melanoma studies summary, V: 290 mitochondrial function, V: 33–34 multiple myeloma studies summary, V: 362 nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer studies summary, V: 265 neuroblastoma, V: 426 neurotoxicity, V: 35 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma studies summary, V: 344 parkinsonism, V: 453, 460 prostate cancer studies summary, IV: 326–335; V: 317–318 reproductive toxicity, V: 35–36 respiratory disorders studies summary, V: 481 sex ratios of offspring, V: 433 soft-tissue sarcoma studies summary, V: 283 testicular cancer studies summary, V: 325 thyroid hormones, V: 34 toxicology overview, V: 30–31 Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2002 (Update 2002), VI: 2, 5–7, 11, 33–37, 43, 51, 55, 58–60, 66–73, 83–84, 88–92, 118, 121–126, 129–130, 135 health outcomes conclusions, VI: 11–18 toxicology overviews, VI: 33, 37 Veterans’ benefits. See Compensation, veterans Veterans’ compensation. See Compensation, veterans Veterans’ Dioxin and Radiation Exposure Compensation Standards Act of 1984. See Public Law 98-542 Veterans’ Education and Benefits Expansion Act of 2001, VI: 1 Veterans’ Health Care, Training, and Small Business Loan Act of 1981. See Public Law 97-72 Veterans’ Health Care Eligibility Reform Act of 1996. See Public Law 104-262 Veterans’ Health Programs Extension and Improvement Act of 1979, III: 240 Veterans’ service organizations, VI: 20 Vibrotactile abnormalities, V: 466, 468 Vietnam, III: 533; VI: 134, 181–182 herbicide latency issues, methodology, II: 13; III: 12–14 herbicide targeting in, I: 99–106; IV: 116–117 herbicide use in, concerns about, I: 29–32, 45; II: 1, 2, 4, 11, 17, 18, 26; III: 1, 2, 5, 12, 13, 17, 18, 25; V: 3, 30–31, 229–232 research in, I: 30–31 troop movements in, I: 52–53, 96, 287 US casualties in, I: 82–83 US involvement, I: 75–76, 84 US military herbicide use in, I: 1, 3, 24, 27, 84–85, 89–93, 94–96, 98–107, 286; II: 17, 18, 26, 27–32; III: 135–142; V: 116–117; VI: 120 See also Ca Mau peninsula; Con Thieu province, Vietnam; Hanoi, Vietnam; Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Khe Sanh-Thonh Son Lam area; Mekong Delta; Rung Sat Special Zone; Vietnamese Vietnam Experience Study (VES), III: 26, 240, 512; VI: 139, 186 birth defects in offspring, II: 288, 289, 290; III: 436, 438, 439, 445 cancer mortality in, I: 444–445 childhood cancer in, I: 629; II: 300 chloracne in, I: 677 circulatory disorders in, I: 702 exposure assessment use, II: 101; III: 146 hepatobiliary cancers, II: 185; III: 283 Hodgkin’s disease in, I: 556 immune system disorders in, I: 696 infertility in, II: 280 liver cancer in, I: 455 low birthweight outcomes in, I: 626 lung cancer in, I: 469 methodology, I: 57–58, 281, 284, 389–391 multiple myeloma, II: 244 neonatal death in, I: 622 neurologic/neuropsychiatric outcomes in, I: 656 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in, I: 542–543 origins, I: 50 reproductive outcomes in, I: 601, 609, 610–611, 626, 632 respiratory cancer in, II: 201 respiratory disorders in, I: 710–711 spina bifida in offspring, II: 9; IV: 8

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 Vietnam herbicides used by military, II: 26–27; VI: 182–186 Vietnam Veteran Agent Orange Health Study, I: 741 Vietnam veterans, I: 1; II: 2; V: 20–21; VI: 2, 5, 10, 491–493 acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy, II: 313; III: 473; IV: 6, 459 advocacy groups, I: 60–61 Air Force research activities, II: 31–32; III: 28–29; IV: 13, 42–43, 150–156, 160–161 altered sperm parameters in, I: 632, 634; III: 445, 446, 450; IV: 7 amyloidosis, IV: 7; V: 507; VI: 473 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, VI: 422 Australian, I: 61, 91, 406, 418, 444, 470, 496–497, 546, 614–615, 633, 702, 710; II: 113, 149, 160, 202, 293; III: 9, 216–217, 218, 237, 244–245, 273, 285–286, 290, 294, 295, 298, 299, 303, 310, 311, 314, 315, 327, 329, 349, 353, 355, 359, 365, 380, 389, 413, 424, 425, 469, 486, 489, 500, 506, 512–513, 517; IV: 9, 10, 159–160, 322–333, 402, 421–422; VI: 141 autoimmune disease in, I: 698, 699 basal/squamous cell skin cancer in, III: 323; IV: 309–310; V: 298, 300; VI: 265 birth defects in children of, I: 609–615, 618; II: 288–296, 298, 300; III: 435, 436, 437–438; IV: 7, 402; V: 402–403; 339, 340, 343, 346, VI: 365 bladder cancer in, I: 517; II: 223–224; III: 349, 351; IV: 7, 342; V: 332, 333; VI: 292 bone/joint cancer in, I: 473, 474–475; II: 204; III: 303, 305; IV: 7, 289; V: 281; VI: 245 brain tumors in, I: 522, 523, 525; III: 358–359, 361; IV: 7, 352; V: 342, 343; VI: 302 breast cancer in, II: 213, 217, 218; III: 326, 328, 329; IV: 7, 316; V: 304, 309; VI: 270 cancer expected incidence, I: 439–440, 442, 446, 452, 461, 501, 505, 513, 522, 526, 564; II: 176–177; III: 266–267, 430–431; IV: 249–250 cancer in children of, I: 629, 630–631; II: 299; IV: 7, 420–422; V: 430–431 cancer mortality, I: 444–445 cancer studies, I: 391–393, 401, 402–403, 405, 436–438; II: 176–177; III: 266–267, 430–431 chloracne in, I: 677–679; II: 317, 318, 321; III: 479–480; IV: 6, 135, 485; V: 479; VI: 438 chronic persistent peripheral neuropathy in, II: 311; circulatory disorders in, I: 702–705; II: 336; IV: 7, 456 III: 516–518; IV: 7, 508–509; VI: 471 class action suit, cognitive/neuropsychiatric disorders in, II: I: 34–35 318; III: 469; IV: 7, 443; V: 449–451 colon cancer in, V: 252 compensation for, I: 34–35, 47, 50–51, 55–56; II: 28–29, 30–31; III: 26–27, 28 congressional responses to concerns of, I: 46–52; II: 27–29; III: 25–28 defining, I: 78 demographics, I: 79, 80–84 developmental toxicity, II: 72 diabetes mellitus in, I: 684, 685, 698; II: 330; III: 495, 497, 498, 500, 502; IV: 6, 485–487; V: 489–490, 491; VI: 450–455 disabilities discharges, I: 32 disease increased risk for, I: 14–15, 221, 225–226, 247–248, 578; II: 14, 22–23, 88, 89, 91, 218, 223, 251, 276, 298, 300–301, 314, 321, 323; 23, 124, 127–128, 329, 334, 343, 397, III: 14–15, 22–430–431, 444, 462, 475–476, 491, 503, 507–508, 525; IV: 12, 256, 270, 275, 279, 284, 290, 296, 323–324, 332, 338, 343, 348, 353, 359, 367, 374, 381, 403, 407, 411–412, 413, 305–306, 311, 318, 417, 426, 466, 468, 475, 489, 495, 505, 510, 513; V: 246, 264, 268, 272, 278, 282, 287, 295, 300, 309, 316, 324, 328, 333, 338, 343, 355, 361, 366, 372, 376, 405, 409, 420–421, 422, 425, 432, 441, 472, 479, 480, 483, 485, 492, 498, 502, 506, 510, 518–519; VI: 221, 226, 230, 234, 241, 245, 251, 261, 265, 270, 275, 283, 284, 292, 296, 302, 312, 319, 325, 333, 337, 341, 365, 372, 378, 379, 383, 398, 410, 420, 422, 429, 430–431, 438, 440, 443, 448, 456, 463, 466, 471, 473, 478, 481 distribution by branch of service, I: 81

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 endometriosis in, VI: 478 Environmental Protection Agency research activities, II: 32; III: 29–30 epidemiologic studies, I: 50, 57–59, 62–63, 384–418; II: 3, 6–7, 28, 113, 149–161; III: 26, 206–217, 236–245, 272–273, 275, 277–278, 279, 281, 283, 285–286, 288, 290, 291, 294–295, 298, 301, 303, 305, 309–310, 312, 316, 317, 323, 326, 328, 333, 336, 338, 339, 340, 342, 343–344, 345–346, 349, 351, 353, 355, 358–359, 361, 363, 365, 370–371, 372, 373, 376, 380, 382, 385, 386, 389, 392, 435, 436, 437–438, 445, 446, 450, 454, 455, 456, 457, 459, 467, 468, 469, 470, 473, 479, 480, 481, 482, 485–486, 489, 491, 495, 497, 498, 500, 502, 505–506, 512–513, 516–518, 521; IV: 150–160, 255, 269, 275, 278, 283, 294–295, 303–304, 309–310, 316, 322–323, 329, 336–337, 342, 347, 357–358, 366–367, 373, 380, 402, 411, 420–422, 474, 485–487, 494, 502–504, 508–509; V: 177–193; VI: 132–133, 551–568 exposure assessment, I: 234–235; VI: 17–18, 186–191 federal government activities/research on military use of herbicides, II: 27–32; III: 25–30 female reproductive system cancers in, I: 505, 511–512, 577; II: 211, 212; III: 333; IV: 7, 322–323; V: 311, 312, 313, 314–315; VI: 275 gastrointestinal disorders in, I: 691, 692; III: 512–513; IV: 502–504; V: 502; VI: 466 gastrointestinal tract cancers in, I: 446; II: 177, 180–181; IV: 7, 255; V: 245–246; VI: 220 genitourinary tract cancers in, I: 513, 518, 522; II: 223–224; III: 272–273, 275, 277–278, 279, 281; IV: 7, 342 health care of, II: 28, 29; III: 26, 27 health concerns of, I: 1, 32–34, 46–47; II: 17–24, 26–27; III: 17–30 hepatic enzyme disorders in, I: 687 hepatobiliary cancers in, I: 455, 457; II: 181, 185, 187; III: 283, 285–286, 288; IV: 7, 269; V: 264; VI: 226 herbicide exposure assessment issues, II: 4–5, 14, 17–24, 26–27; III: 2, 5–6, 142, 143, 146–150; IV: 122–127; V: 28 herbicide exposure assessment strategies for, I: 270–284; II: 99–109; III: 144–145 Hodgkin’s disease in, I: 526, 554–556, 557; II: 235, 236; III: 372, 373, 376; IV: 6, 366–367; V: 359–360, 361; VI: 319 immune modulation in, I: 695–696, 699; III: 489, 491 immune system disorders, VI: 448 individual exposures, VI: 18 infertility, I: 632, 633, 634; II: 280; III: 445, 446, 450; IV: 7; VI: 372 International Agency for Research on Cancer research activities, III: 30 kidney cancer in, VI: 286 laryngeal cancer in, III: 294–295; IV: 6, 9, 278; V: 272; VI: 234 latency relevance for assessing herbicides effect on cancer risk in, II: 276; III: 12–13, 430–431 legislation concerning herbicide exposure and health of, II: 28–29; III: 26–27 leukemia in, I: 13, 564, 570, 571–572; II: 245, 246; III: 385, 386, 389, 392; IV: 7, 380; V: 371; VI: 333, 337 lipid abnormalities in, I: 689, 692; II: 333; III: 505–506, 521; IV: 7, 494; VI: 463 liver toxicity in, II: 332; III: 512–513; IV: 502–504 low birthweight outcomes for, I: 626, 628; III: 457, 459; IV: 7; V: 423–424, 425; VI: 383 lung cancer in, III: 298, 301; IV: 6, 283; V: 278; VI: 240 melanoma in, III: 316, 317; IV: 303–304; V: 288, 289, 292, 293–294; VI: 256–259 military experiences, I: 75, 82, 272, 286, 399 motor/coordination dysfunction in, I: 659–660, 662; II: 309, 310; III: 469, 470; IV: 7, 448 multiple myeloma in, I: 526, 562, 563; II: 244; III: 380, 382; IV: 6, 10, 373; V: 365; VI: 325 nasal/nasopharyngeal cancer in, I: 459, 460; II: 189; III: 290, 291; IV: 7, 275; V: 268; VI: 229–230 National Personnel Records Center listing, I: 17 neural tube defects in offspring, numbers, II: 297; IV: 7, 18, 404–405; V: 16

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 neurobehavioral disorders in, II: 305, 308, 309, 310, 311, 313, 314; III: 467, 468; IV: 457–459; V: 472; VI: 410 neuropsychiatric outcomes, I: 653–656, 658; II: 308; III: 469; IV: 443; VI: 430–431 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in, I: 526, 541–548, 549; II: 234; III: 363, 365, 370–371; IV: 6, 357–358; V: 348–350, 354, 355; VI: 312 number of, I: 3, 4, 74, 75–80 outreach activities, II: 31; III: 28 (See also Air Force Health Study [AFHS]; Compensation, veterans; Demographic data, Vietnam veterans; Operation Ranch Hand; Risk assessment) pancreatic cancer in, V: 258–259 parkinsonism in, II: 309–310; VI: 420 perinatal deaths in offspring, II: 285; III: 454, 455, 456; IV: 7; VI: 379 peripheral nervous system disorders in, I: 665, 666; II: 311, 313; III: 473, 475; IV: 6, 7, 456; VI: 429 porphyria cutanea tarda in, I: 681, 682–683; II: 321–322, 323; III: 481, 482; IV: 6, 8; V: 480; VI: 440 prostate cancer in, I: 513, 518, 519, 522; II: 9, 217–218, 221, 223; III: 336, 338, 339, 340, 342; IV: 6, 8, 10, 329; V: 321, 322; VI: 281, 283 records-based exposure assessment, I: 271–280; IV: 121–126 records identification, II: 24–25 rectal cancer in, V: 256 renal cancers in, III: 352, 353, 355; IV: 7, 347; VI: 296 reproductive outcomes, I: 405–406, 418, 601–603, 609–615, 618, 620–622, 625; II: 71, 278, 300–301; III: 435, 436, 437–438, 445, 446, 450, 454, 455, 456, 457, 459; IV: 7, 402; VI: 398 research recommendations, II: 23–25; III: 23; V: 523–525 respiratory cancers in, I: 469–470, 472; II: 190, 201–202, 203; IV: 6, 283 respiratory disorders in, I: 710–712, 713–714; III: 485–486; IV: 7, 474; V: 483; VI: 443 risk assessment for, I: 14–15, 221, 225–226, 247–248, 578; II: 14, 22–23, 89, 91, 251, 276, 298, 300–301, 314, 321, 323, 349–357; III: 14–15, 22–23, 124, 127–128, 430–431; IV: 20, 105–108; V: 7, 9–10, 23; VI: 9–10, 221 serum testing, I: 20–21 skin cancer in, I: 501, 505; II: 209; III: 312; IV: 7, 301; VI: 256–259, 265 soft-tissue sarcoma in, I: 475, 492–498, 500; II: 205, 208; III: 309–310; IV: 6, 294–295; V: 286–287; VI: 251 South Koreans, I: 61–62; VI: 1, 6–7, 188–189 spina bifida in offspring, II: 9–10, 296, 298, 301; III: 7, 8, 9–10, 21, 24–25, 437–438; IV: 7, 10, 18, 402 spontaneous abortions in, I: 601–603, 605; II: 283; IV: 7, 411; V: 420–421; VI: 378 state-sponsored studies of, II: 152–153, 158–159, 161, 202, 292; III: 213–215, 243–244; IV: 158–159 stomach cancer in, V: 249 suicide incidence, I: 655–656 testicular cancer in, II: 153; III: 343–344, 345–346; IV: 7, 336–337; V: 326–327; VI: 284 thyroid homeostasis, VI: 481 twin studies, I: 398–399, 406, 703, 711 Vietnamese veterans, Vietnamese studies of, III: 245 women, I: 50, 83–84; II: 152–153, 180, 181, 190, 201, 204, 205, 209, 211, 212, 213, 216–217, 218, 223, 226, 228, 229, 231, 245, 278, 280; III: 326–329, 333, 434–435; IV: 316 Vietnam veterans’ exposure studies, II: 154, 156–157, 158–159; III: 206–209, 210–217, 275, 278, 279, 281, 283, 288, 291, 305, 310, 312, 316, 317, 323, 326, 328, 336, 342, 345–346, 351, 355, 370–371, 376, 382, 437–438, 450, 454, 455, 456, 459, 497, 521; IV: 150, 156–158, 262, 264, 272–273, 276–277; V: 118–127, 232–235; VI: 134–142, 181–187 Vietnam veterans’ increased disease risk, II: 22–23; III: 22–23 Vietnam Veterans of America, I: 60 Vietnamese birth defects and herbicide exposure, II: 287–288; V: 394, 400 cancer in, II: 148; III: 283 epidemiologic studies, I: 599–601; II: 113, 144–145, 148, 184, 287–288; III: 202, 234, 283; V: 172–173

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 herbicide environmental exposure, II: 144–145, 148, 287–288; III: 283 herbicide exposure assessment, I: 269, 370–372; II: 4–5, 108–109; III: 156–157; IV: 116–117; V: 3, 229 herbicide exposure indices development, II: 107–108 reproductive outcomes, I: 599–601, 608–609; IV: 148–149 research recommendations, I: 731; V: 11, 526; VI: 10, 491–493 scientists in, studies of Vietnamese veterans, III: 245; VI: 493 Vietnamese Veterans, IV: 160 Viral infection immune system response, I: 692–693 TCDD-enhanced susceptibility, I: 149 teratogenic potential, I: 607 See also Immune system disorders Vitamin A, I: 174 VLDL. See Very low density lipoprotein receptors W WAIS. See Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Wales. See United Kingdom Walking abnormalities. See Motor/coordination dysfunction War Research Service, I: 25 Washington, D.C., II: 343; III: 533; V: 5, 400 Washington state, I: 336–338, 341, 487–488, 535; II: 149, 241; III: 229, 230, 232, 234; IV: 149, 215; V: 117; VI: 129, 133 Waste incineration workers, V: 6 Wasting syndrome, TCDD-induced, I: 162–166; II: 76–77; III: 80–83; IV: 25, 31, 57, 76; V: 56; VI: 67–68 Weakness. See Motor/coordination dysfunction Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS), I: 641; V: 450–451 Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), V: 450–451 West Germany, II: 328–329; III: 223, 337, 379, 387, 483, 506, 511, 515 West Virginia, I: 60, 404, 470, 496, 546, 621, 662–663, 686, 689, 700; II: 202; III: 243; IV: 364, 371 See also Nitro, West Virginia Western Europe, II: 268; III: 510 WHO. See World Health Organization Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT), V: 450–452 Wilm’s tumor, I: 594; V: 334; VI: 292 See also Children, cancer in; Kidney cancer Wisconsin, I: 37, 60, 336, 404–405, 445, 455, 470, 496, 517, 523, 534, 546, 556, 560, 702, 710; II: 185, 202, 226, 229, 239, 241; III: 229, 243, 283, 313, 348; IV: 259, 262, 264, 267, 272, 291, 299, 301, 335, 339, 345, 350, 355, 361, 363–364, 371, 375 WMS. See Wechsler Memory Scale Women. See Breast cancer; Cervical cancer; Demographic data, Vietnam veterans; Gender; Ovarian cancer; Reproductive disorders; Reproductive system cancers, women; Uterine cancer; Women veterans Women veterans, I: 79; II: 30 breast cancer estimated risk, II: 218; III: 329; IV: 318; V: 301 breast cancer expected incidence, I: 440, 461, 501, 505, 513, 522, 526, 564; II: 213; IV: 314; V: 301 breast cancer in, II: 213, 216–217; III: 322, 324–328, 329; IV: 314–320; V: 300–301 circulatory disease in, I: 702 epidemiologic studies, I: 50, 81; II: 28, 152–153, 180, 181, 190, 201, 204, 205, 209, 211, 212, 213–217, 218, 219–223, 226, 228, 229, 231, 245, 278, 280; III: 324–328, 333; IV: 314–320 mortality studies, I: 394–395, 470, 545; II: 152–153, 180, 201 reproductive outcomes, III: 434–435; IV: 399–400; V: 5 reproductive system cancers in, II: 211, 212; III: 333; IV: 320–326; V: 314–316 research recommendations, I: 728 statistics, I: 83–84 See also Reproductive system cancers, women Women Veterans Health Programs Act of 1992. See Public Law 102-585 World Health Organization (WHO), II: 282; III: 30, 454, 492; IV: 413, 415; V: 372, 422; VI: 37, 334, 379 TEF factors, V: 26–27

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2004 World War II, I: 25, 32, 82; II: 150, 268; III: 237, 420; VI: 135 WRAT. See Wide Range Achievement Test X Xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs), II: 56, 57, 58, 71; III: 66, 67, 104 Y Yorkshire, England, III: 234; IV: 149; V: 117