success.1 These challenges affect not only the new investigators themselves, but also threaten the health and vitality of the entire biomedical research enterprise.

There is need to act now. Not only can postdoctoral researchers and new investigators be impacted immediately, but the long-term effect on the biomedical workforce may only be fully manifest after a significant time. It may take 12–14 years for scientists to move from undergraduate years to an independent position. This is but one reason to have a continual source of current data on the scientific workforce to measure the ongoing effect of any efforts made to address these challenges. To that end, data collection on the biomedical workforce and how all individuals move through the grants system must be enhanced significantly. It is impossible to make informed programmatic decisions without accurate numbers of who is being supported, by what mechanism, and with what impact.

In this report, the committee has considered three different stages of biomedical careers—postdoctoral training, the transition to independence itself, and the establishment of stable research programs—and it offers recommendations appropriate to each career stage (Figure 7-1). The steps focus on fostering investigator independence and positioning investigators to continue that independence throughout their research career. “Independence” means not only independence of funding, but independence of thought; this broadening of the definition takes into account the new realities of biomedical research, including the development of large research teams and the growth of non-tenure-track research positions.

The committee has considered recommendations from previous reports made on these issues and examined the challenges that have prevented successful implementation. As such, many of the recommendations presented in this report have largely already been subjected to at least one round of testing and revision. The committee has also examined existing programs and models inside and outside the NIH to identify elements that appear to meet with success. The recommendations presented here incorporate these ideas.

In conclusion, this report presents an overview of biomedical research careers and strategies for recruiting, retaining, and supporting new investigators in biomedical research. While recognizing the realities of the present situation, it offers a vision for the future that will help ensure the continued vitality of the biomedical research enterprise and its workforce.


A trend away from higher-risk, higher-reward research programs is, of course, not limited to new investigators, but out-of-the-box thinking may be especially common among those at the beginning of their careers.

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