Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots

WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Tal Oron-Gilad, rapporteur

Planning Committee for the Workshop on Scalable Interfaces for Air and Ground Military Robots

Committee on Human Factors

Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots: Workshop Summary Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots WORKSHOP SUMMARY Tal Oron-Gilad, rapporteur Planning Committee for the Workshop on Scalable Interfaces for Air and Ground Military Robots Committee on Human Factors Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots: Workshop Summary THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. W911NF-04-1-0277 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09606-5 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-54919-1 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2005). Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots: Workshop Summary. Tal Oron-Gilad, rapporteur. Planning Committee for the Workshop on Scalable Interfaces for Air and Ground Military Robots. Committee on Human Factors. Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots: Workshop Summary THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots: Workshop Summary PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON SCALABLE INTERFACES FOR AIR AND GROUND MILITARY ROBOTS PETER A. HANCOCK (Chair), Department of Psychology, University of Central Florida, Orlando JOHN D. LEE, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City JOEL S. WARM, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati ANNE S. MAVOR, Director SUSAN R. McCUTCHEN, Research Associate DEBORAH M. JOHNSON, Senior Project Assistant

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Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots: Workshop Summary COMMITTEE ON HUMAN FACTORS RAJA PARASURAMAN (Chair), Department of Psychology, George Mason University JOHN M. CARROLL, Center for Human-Computer Interaction, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg ROBYN DAWES, Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University DONALD FISHER, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MARTHA GRABOWSKI, Department of Decision Sciences and Engineering Systems, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and Information Systems Programs, LeMoyne College PETER A. HANCOCK, Department of Psychology, University of Central Florida, Orlando DANIEL R. ILGEN, Department of Psychology and Department of Management, Michigan State University, East Lansing RICHARD J. JAGACINSKI, Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus BONNIE E. JOHN, Human-Computer Interaction Institute, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University KURT KRAIGER, Department of Psychology, University of Tulsa, OK JOHN D. LEE, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City WILLIAM S. MARRAS, Institute for Ergonomics and Department of Industrial, Welding, and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus RICHARD W. PEW, BBN Technologies, Cambridge, MA ROBERT G. RADWIN, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison JOEL S. WARM, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati GREG L. ZACHARIAS, Charles River Analytics, Cambridge, MA ANNE S. MAVOR, Director SUSAN R. McCUTCHEN, Research Associate

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Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots: Workshop Summary Preface The Committee on Human Factors was established in 1980 by the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Over the years, the committee has pursued a wide range of topics dealing with theoretical and methodological issues and with the application of principles of human behavior and performance to the design of systems. Recent interests have included the development and application of principles of human-system interface design to current and planned military systems involving human operators. In this context, the Committee on Human Factors was asked by the Army Research Laboratory to hold a workshop on scalable interfaces for air and ground military robots. In response, a subgroup of the committee was appointed by the National Research Council to plan and organize the workshop. Key participants from both the engineering and human factors communities were identified and asked to make presentations. These presentations focused on current developments in military robotic systems and the requirements for operator interfaces used to control these systems. Presentations are available electronically at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/bcsse/Presentations.html. A primary objective of the workshop was to examine the application of scalable interfaces across military robotic systems. Scalable can refer to interfaces that share a common purpose but may be mounted on different vehicles and used for different purposes. The design may, at different times, be guided by principles based on common look and feel, definition of func-

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Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots: Workshop Summary tions, logic of the software and the intelligence behind the robot, and functionality. At present, progress in designing scalable interfaces is very much contingent on the state of the art of interface design, the evolving nature of the remote system to be controlled, and the resident capacities of the respective military users. We would like to thank Michael Barnes from the Army Research Laboratory for supporting this effort and for his interest, insights, and helpful suggestions. We would also like to extend our appreciation to National Research Council staff, Anne Mavor, Susan McCutchen, and Deborah Johnson, for their assistance in planning and organizing the workshop. This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Jessie Y.C. Chen, Human Research & Engineering Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Orlando, FL; Rene Jos. de Pontbriand, S&T Integration/Human-Robot Interaction, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, APG, MD; and John D. Lee, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University of Iowa. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Raja Parasuraman, Department of Psychology, George Mason University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution. Peter A. Hancock, Chair Planning Committee

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Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots: Workshop Summary Contents     Interfaces for Ground and Air Military Robots   1      Introduction,   2      Human-Robotic Interaction: Theoretical, Experimental, and Observational Perspectives,   8      Application and Real Environments,   17      Coordination, Communication, and Delegation,   22      Key Issues,   27     References and Bibliography   33     Appendixes     A   Workshop Agenda and Participants   37 B   Biographical Sketches of Planning Committee Members and Speakers   42

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