REFERENCES

AANS/CNS (American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the Congress of Neurological Surgeons). 2002. Pharmacological therapy after acute cervical spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery 50(3 Suppl): S63-72.


Bracken MB, Collins WF, Freeman DF, Shepard MJ, Wagner FW, Silten RM, Hellenbrand KG, Ransohoff J, Hunt WE, Perot PL Jr, et al. 1984. Efficacy of methylprednisolone in acute spinal cord injury. Journal of the American Medical Association 251(1): 45-52.

Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Hellenbrand KG, Collins WF, Leo LS, Freeman DF, Wagner FC, Flamm ES, Eisenberg HM, Goodman JH, et al. 1985. Methylprednisolone and neurological function 1 year after spinal cord injury. Results of the National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study. Journal of Neurosurgery 63(5): 704-713.

Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, Holford TR, Young W, Baskin DS, Eisenberg HM, Flamm E, Leo-Summers L, Maroon J. 1990. A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury. Results of the second National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study. New England Journal of Medicine 322(20): 1405-1411.

Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF Jr, Holford TR, Baskin DS, Eisenberg HM, Flamm E, Leo-Summers L, Maroon JC, Marshall LF, Perot PL Jr, Piepmeier J, Sonntag VKH, Wagner FC Jr, Wilberger JL, Winn HR, Young W. 1992. Methylprednisolone or naloxone treatment after acute spinal cord injury: 1-year follow-up data: Results of the second National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study. Journal of Neurosurgery 76(1): 23-31.

Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Holford TR, Leo-Summers L, Aldrich EF, Fazl M, Fehlings M, Herr DL, Hitchon PW, Marshall LF, Nockels RP, Pascale V, Perot PL Jr, Piepmeier J, Sonntag VKH, Wagner F, Wilberger JE, Winn HR, Young W. 1997. Administration of methylprednisolone for 24 or 48 hours or tirilazad mesylate for 48 hours in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury: Results of the third National Acute Spinal Cord Injury randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 277(20): 1597-1604.

Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Holford TR, Leo-Summers L, Aldrich EF, Fazl M, Fehlings MG, Herr DL, Hitchon PW, Marshall LF, Nockels RP, Pascale V, Perot PL Jr, Piepmeier J, Sonntag VKH, Wagner F, Wilberger JE, Winn HR, Young W. 1998. Methylprednisolone or tirilazad mesylate administration after acute spinal cord injury: 1-year follow up: Results of the third National Acute Spinal Cord Injury randomized controlled trial. Journal of Neurosurgery 89(5): 699-706.


Galandiuk S, Raque G, Appel S, Polk HC Jr, Collins WF Jr, Trunkey D, Hoff JT, Howard J, Lucas CB, Patterson RH. 1993. The two-edged sword of large-dose steroids for spinal cord trauma. Annals of Surgery 218(4): 419-427.

George ER, Scholten DJ, Buechler CM, Jordan-Tibbs J, Mattice C, Albrecht RM, Turner W, Edwards M, Jacobs D. 1995. Failure of methylprednisolone to improve the outcome of spinal cord injuries. American Surgeon 61(8): 659-664.

Gerhart KA, Johnson RL, Menconi J, Hoffman RE, Lammertse DP. 1995. Utilization and effectiveness of methylprednisolone in a population-based sample of spinal cord injured persons. Paraplegia 33(6): 316-321.

Gerndt SJ, Rodriguez JL, Pawlik JW, Taheri PA, Wahl WL, Micheals AJ, Papadopoulos SM, Croce MA, Petersen SR, Hawkins ML. 1997. Consequences of high-dose steroid therapy for acute spinal cord injury. Journal of Trauma: Injury Infection & Critical Care 42(2): 279-284.


Matsumoto T, Tamaki T, Kawakami M, Yoshida M, Ando M, Yamada H. 2001. Early complications of high-dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate treatment in the follow-up of acute cervical spinal cord injury. Spine 26(4): 426-430.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement