FIGURE 2-2 Functions controlled by nerves at different levels of the spine. Damage at a particular level usually impairs the functions controlled by all nerves at lower levels.

SOURCE: Reprinted with permission, from CRPF, 2002. Copyright 2002 from CRPF.

and pinprick. Predefined regions of the skin covering the whole body, called dermatomes, are each scored as having normal, impaired, or absent sensation. Similarly, the motor level is determined by manual testing and grading of the strengths, on a scale of 0 to 5, of 10 muscle groups that control different motor functions, including limb, bowel, and bladder functions. Although the sensory and motor levels may differ somewhat, they both come under an umbrella “neurological level,” which is defined as the most



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