Assessment

biomarker applications, 77–79

of complications of spinal cord injury, 76

experimental models, 65

of functional outcomes of spinal cord injury, 74–76

imaging technologies, 83–88

injury classification, 32–36

injury outcomes, 260–267

pain, 53

recommendations for research, 89

research needs, 8, 10

standardization of outcome measures, 168–172, 178–179

technical development, 64

Astrocytes, 37

in glial scarring, 43

Atrophy, muscle, 112

Autonomic dysreflexia, 105

Autonomic nervous system

motor function and, 48

research goals, 2, 24

Axon anatomy and function, 31

embryonic development, 130

spinal cord pathophysiology, 43

Axonal regrowth, 3

animal models, 65–66, 70, 71–73

barriers to, strategies to remove, 127–129

cell transplantation to promote, 132, 135–136

combination therapies to promote, 140–141

environmental conditions for, 45–46, 129

gene therapies to improve, 130–132

glial scarring in inhibition of, 43–45, 127

guidance, 129–130

in vitro studies, 65

macrophage therapy to improve, 123

molecular processes, 65

muscle spasticity and, 52

neurotrophic factors to promote, 135

pain outcomes and, 101–102

research needs, 58

research recommendations, 4, 8, 143

restoration of impulse conduction, 133–134

spontaneous healing, 47

strategies for promoting, 129

synaptic connections, 129

tissue scaffolding to promote, 132

Axon anatomy and function, 31

embryonic development, 130

spinal cord pathophysiology, 43

B

Baclofen, 102

Basal ganglia, 48

Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale, 74–76, 260

Basso Mouse Scale (BMS), 74–76, 260–261

Bathing abilities, 17, 19

Bed mobility, 16, 18

Biomarkers, 8, 89

applications, 77–79

current technology, 77

future prospects for research, 81–83

in imaging technologies, 85–87

Bladder function, 105

anatomy, 55

outcomes by level of injury, 16, 18

pathophysiology, 55–56, 103

research goals, 2, 24

therapeutic interventions, 103–104, 110–111

types of dysfunction, 103

Blood pressure, spinal cord injury and, 39

Body weight support training, 108–110

Bone disorders, 107

Bowel function, 104, 105

outcomes by level of injury, 16, 18

pathophysiology, 56–57

research goals, 2, 24

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, 126

Brain stem, motor function, 48

Bryon Reisch Paralysis Foundation, 191

Buoniconti Fund to Cure Paralysis, 191

C

C fibers, 56

Calcium, intracellular, 126

in apoptosis, 42–43

in spinal cord injury pathophysiology, 41

California, 213, 223–227

Reeve-Irvine Research Center, 6, 155, 224

stem cell bill, Proposition 71, 226–227



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