Calpain, 125

Caspases, 125

CAT scan. See Computed tomography

Cauda equina, 55

Causes of spinal cord injury, 14–15

Cells

cell-based therapeutic interventions, 3, 123, 135–140

endothelial, 38, 39

glial, 65

meningeal, 43

olfactory ensheathing, 136, 157

pathiophysiology of spinal cord injury, 36–39

Schwann, 37, 45, 65, 133, 135–136

T-lymphocytes, 38, 41, 42, 123

transplantation, 132, 135–149

See also Apoptosis;

Neuron function;

Stem cell therapies

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, 175

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 188–189

Central pattern generator, 50

Cerebellum, motor function, 48

Cerebral cortex

central pattern generator and, 50

motor control, 48

in pain experience, 55

Cervical spine, 32

Chondroitin sulfate, 65, 127–128

Chondroitinase ABC, 128

Christopher Reeve Clinical Trials Network, 171, 176, 192

Chronic phase of injury, 36, 43–45

clinical practice guidelines, 96

treatment strategies, 127–135

Circulatory system

acute response to spinal cord injury, 39–40

autonomic dysreflexia, 105

thromboembolism risk, 102–103

Classification

of injury, 32–36

of pain, 53

Clinical trials

challenges in spinal cord injury research, 160–162

clinician expertise, 164

collaborative multicenter studies, 164–167

coordination with care resources, 167–168

criteria for entering into, 154

future prospects, 159

historical review, 278–319

industry involvement, 172–174

informed consent issues, 160–161

interpretation of results, 172

patient recruitment, 161–162

phases, 153

purpose, 152–153

quality of past studies, 156–157

recommendations, 11, 12, 178–179, 239

research opportunities, 8–9

small population studies, 162–164, 179

spontaneous recovery in, 162

standardization of outcome measures, 168–172

Clip compression, 68

Collaborative research

centers of excellence for, 195, 196–197

clinical trials, 164–167

to develop imaging technology, 88

international efforts, 193–194

network for, 195, 197–199

rationale, 5, 8–9

recommendations, 11, 239

strategies for enhancing, 195–199, 230

Combination therapies, 3

challenges to development, 141

current state, 140–141

neurotrophic factors in, 127

rationale, 140, 141

research recommendations, 5, 8, 10, 141, 143

Communication abilities, spinal cord injury and, 17, 19

Completeness of injury, 20, 34–35

Compression injury

animal models, 68–70

decompression interventions, 98–99

Computed tomography, 84

Computed tomography (CT/CAT scan), 83

Congress of Neurological Surgeons, 96, 192

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine, 96, 193

Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers, 175

Contusion injuries, 32

animal models, 68



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