TABLE 2-5 Cell Types Involved in Spinal Cord Injuries

Cell Type

Function and Description

  • Carries information within the brain to the rest of the body by conducting electrical signals from neuron to neuron

  • Several functional types: motor neuron, sensory neuron, autonomic neuron, and interneuron

  • A type of glial cell found in the CNS

  • Sequesters potassium ions during neural activity

  • Removes excess neurotransmitters (e.g., glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid)

  • Reacts to injury with hypertrophy and cell division, an increase in protein filaments, and formation of a glial scar

  • A type of glial cell found in the CNS

  • Forms myelin that insulates the neurons’ axons to expedite transmission of electrical signals

  • One oligodendrocyte myelinates multiple axons

  • Produces molecules, including Nogo-A, that inhibit neurite outgrowth

  • Found in the peripheral nervous system

  • Forms myelin that insulates the neurons’ axons to expedite transmission of electrical signals

  • One Schwann cell myelinates only one axon

  • Promotes neurite outgrowth

  • Migrates into the spinal cord after injury



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