Cell Type

Function and Description

  • Forms the lining of blood vessels

  • Upon injury, up-regulates cell adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell membrane, which helps to recruit inflammatory cells to the site

  • When injured, releases cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to inflammation

  • Removes microbial intruders and tissue debris

  • Emits substances that activate other inflammatory cells and glial cells and that injure neurons

  • Migrates to area of injury and differentiates into macrophages

  • Releases inflammatory cytokines and free radicals

  • Emits growth factors

  • Removes tissue debris

  • Found in the CNS

  • Has actions similar to those of macrophages

  • Emits inflammatory cytokines

  • Kills cells (cytotoxic killing)

  • Neuroprotection in part by possible secretion of growth factors


SOURCES: Reprinted with permission, from Lentz, 1971. Copyright 1971 by Elsevier, Inc.; Dammann et al., 2001. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier; Reprinted with permission, from Stimson, 2001. Copyright 2001 by Muscular Dystrophy Association; Reprinted with permission, from Caceci and El-Shafey, 2002. Copyright 2002 by Caceci; Reprinted with permission, from Merck & Co., Inc., 2004. Copyright 2004 by Merck & Co., Inc.; Reprinted with permission, from Shier et al., 2004. Copyright 2004 by McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

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