References

ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). 2002. TLVs and BEIs for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents. Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH.

Alfa Aesar. 1997. O,S-DMP material safety data sheet, section 5, April 2. Ward Hill, Mass.: Alfa Aesar.

Aue, W.A., and X. Sun. 1993. Quenching in the flame photometric detector. Journal of Chromatography A 641(2): 291−299.


Baker, D.J., and E.M. Sedgewick. 1996. Single fibre electromyographic changes in man after organophosphate exposure. Human and Experimental Toxicology 15(5): 369−375.


Calloway, S., and P. Dirnhuber. 1971. Estimation of the Concentration of Nerve Agent Vapour Required to Produce Measured Degrees of Miosis in Rabbit and Human Eyes. Technical Paper No. 64. Porton Down, U.K.: Chemical Defense Establishment.

Cheskis, S., E. Atar, and A. Amirav. 1993. Pulsed-flame photometer: A novel gas chromatography detector. Analytical Chemistry 65(5): 539−555.


D’Agostino, P.A., L.R. Provost, and J. Vesentini. 1987. Analysis of O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX) by capillary column gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 402: 221−232.

D’Agostino, P.A., J.R. Hancock, and L.R. Provost.1999. Analysis of O-ethyl S-[2-diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX) and its degradation products by packed capillary column liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 837(1-2): 93−105.

DHHS (Department of Health and Human Services). 2004. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.


EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Undated. Summary and Evaluation of Potential Ordnance/Explosive and Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel Hazards at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Executive Summary. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/region08/superfund/sites/rma/rmaordhaz.html. Last accessed August 23, 2004.


Federal Register. 1988. Final recommendations for protecting the health and safety against potential adverse effects of long-term exposure to low doses of agents GA, GB, VX, mustard agent (H, HD, T), and lewisite (L). Federal Register 53(50): 8504−8507.

Federal Register. 1989. Air contaminants. Federal Register 54(12): 2332− 2983.

Federal Register. 1994. Respiratory protection. Federal Register 59: 58884− 58956.

Federal Register. 2002. Airborne exposure limits for chemical warfare agents GA (tabun), GB (sarin), and VX. Federal Register 67(5): 894−901.

Federal Register. 2003a. Final recommendations for protecting human health from potential adverse effects of exposure to agents GA (tabun), GB (sarin), and VX. Federal Register 68(196): 58348−58351.

Federal Register. 2003b. Proposed airborne exposure limits for chemical warfare agents H, HD, and HT (sulfur mustard). Federal Register 68(140): 43356−43357.

Federal Register. 2004. Interim recommendations for airborne exposure limits for chemical warfare agents H and HD (sulfur mustard). Federal Register 69(85): 24164−24168.

FOCIS. 2003a. Evaluation of Monitoring Technologies, Phases 1 & 2—Final Report, October 14. Newton, Mass., FOCIS Associates, Inc.

FOCIS. 2003b. Development of New DAAMS Technology to Meet the Proposed General Population Limit (GPL) and Time Weighted Average (TWA) Limits for GB & VX, September 11. Newton, Mass., FOCIS Associates, Inc.

FOCIS. 2004. Update on Field Activities Conducted at UMCDF for the Field Evaluations of Enhanced DAAMS Methods for the Lower GPL and Lower WPL Levels for GB and VX, June 30. Newton, Mass., FOCIS Associates, Inc.


GAO (Government Accountability Office). 2004. Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives. Chemical Weapons: Destruction Schedule Delays and Cost Growth Continue to Challenge Program Management. Statement of Raymond J Decker, Director Defense Capabilities and Management, April 1. Washington, D.C.: Government Accountability Office.


IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1987. IARC Supplement 7: Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs, Volumes 1 to 42. Out of print.


McNamara, B.P. and F. Leitnaker. 1971. Toxicological Basis for Controlling Emission of GB into the Environment. Edgewood Arsenal Special Publication 100-98. Edgewood Arsenal, Md.: Medical Research Laboratory.

Mioduszewski, R.J., S.A. Reutter, L.L. Miller, E.J. Olajos, and S.A. Thomson. 1998. Evaluation of Airborne Exposure Limits for G Agents: Occupational and General Population Exposure Criteria. ERDEC-TR-489. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Edgewood Research Development and Engineering Center.

Mioduszewski, R.J., J. Manthei, R. Way, D. Burnett, B. Gaviola, W. Muse, S. Thomson, D. Sommerville, R. Crosier, J. Scotto, D. McCaskey, C. Crous, and K. Matson. 2002. Low-Level Sarin Vapor Exposure in Rats: Effect of Exposure Concentration and Duration on Pupil Size, ECBC-TR-235, May. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Edgewood Chemical Biological Center.



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Impact of Revised Airborne Exposure Limits on Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Program Activities References ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). 2002. TLVs and BEIs for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents. Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH. Alfa Aesar. 1997. O,S-DMP material safety data sheet, section 5, April 2. Ward Hill, Mass.: Alfa Aesar. Aue, W.A., and X. Sun. 1993. Quenching in the flame photometric detector. Journal of Chromatography A 641(2): 291−299. Baker, D.J., and E.M. Sedgewick. 1996. Single fibre electromyographic changes in man after organophosphate exposure. Human and Experimental Toxicology 15(5): 369−375. Calloway, S., and P. Dirnhuber. 1971. Estimation of the Concentration of Nerve Agent Vapour Required to Produce Measured Degrees of Miosis in Rabbit and Human Eyes. Technical Paper No. 64. Porton Down, U.K.: Chemical Defense Establishment. Cheskis, S., E. Atar, and A. Amirav. 1993. Pulsed-flame photometer: A novel gas chromatography detector. Analytical Chemistry 65(5): 539−555. D’Agostino, P.A., L.R. Provost, and J. Vesentini. 1987. Analysis of O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX) by capillary column gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 402: 221−232. D’Agostino, P.A., J.R. Hancock, and L.R. Provost.1999. Analysis of O-ethyl S-[2-diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX) and its degradation products by packed capillary column liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 837(1-2): 93−105. DHHS (Department of Health and Human Services). 2004. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Undated. Summary and Evaluation of Potential Ordnance/Explosive and Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel Hazards at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Executive Summary. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/region08/superfund/sites/rma/rmaordhaz.html. Last accessed August 23, 2004. Federal Register. 1988. Final recommendations for protecting the health and safety against potential adverse effects of long-term exposure to low doses of agents GA, GB, VX, mustard agent (H, HD, T), and lewisite (L). Federal Register 53(50): 8504−8507. Federal Register. 1989. Air contaminants. Federal Register 54(12): 2332− 2983. Federal Register. 1994. Respiratory protection. Federal Register 59: 58884− 58956. Federal Register. 2002. Airborne exposure limits for chemical warfare agents GA (tabun), GB (sarin), and VX. Federal Register 67(5): 894−901. Federal Register. 2003a. Final recommendations for protecting human health from potential adverse effects of exposure to agents GA (tabun), GB (sarin), and VX. Federal Register 68(196): 58348−58351. Federal Register. 2003b. Proposed airborne exposure limits for chemical warfare agents H, HD, and HT (sulfur mustard). Federal Register 68(140): 43356−43357. Federal Register. 2004. Interim recommendations for airborne exposure limits for chemical warfare agents H and HD (sulfur mustard). Federal Register 69(85): 24164−24168. FOCIS. 2003a. Evaluation of Monitoring Technologies, Phases 1 & 2—Final Report, October 14. Newton, Mass., FOCIS Associates, Inc. FOCIS. 2003b. Development of New DAAMS Technology to Meet the Proposed General Population Limit (GPL) and Time Weighted Average (TWA) Limits for GB & VX, September 11. Newton, Mass., FOCIS Associates, Inc. FOCIS. 2004. Update on Field Activities Conducted at UMCDF for the Field Evaluations of Enhanced DAAMS Methods for the Lower GPL and Lower WPL Levels for GB and VX, June 30. Newton, Mass., FOCIS Associates, Inc. GAO (Government Accountability Office). 2004. Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives. Chemical Weapons: Destruction Schedule Delays and Cost Growth Continue to Challenge Program Management. Statement of Raymond J Decker, Director Defense Capabilities and Management, April 1. Washington, D.C.: Government Accountability Office. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1987. IARC Supplement 7: Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs, Volumes 1 to 42. Out of print. McNamara, B.P. and F. Leitnaker. 1971. Toxicological Basis for Controlling Emission of GB into the Environment. Edgewood Arsenal Special Publication 100-98. Edgewood Arsenal, Md.: Medical Research Laboratory. Mioduszewski, R.J., S.A. Reutter, L.L. Miller, E.J. Olajos, and S.A. Thomson. 1998. Evaluation of Airborne Exposure Limits for G Agents: Occupational and General Population Exposure Criteria. ERDEC-TR-489. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Edgewood Research Development and Engineering Center. Mioduszewski, R.J., J. Manthei, R. Way, D. Burnett, B. Gaviola, W. Muse, S. Thomson, D. Sommerville, R. Crosier, J. Scotto, D. McCaskey, C. Crous, and K. Matson. 2002. Low-Level Sarin Vapor Exposure in Rats: Effect of Exposure Concentration and Duration on Pupil Size, ECBC-TR-235, May. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Edgewood Chemical Biological Center.

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Impact of Revised Airborne Exposure Limits on Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Program Activities Munro, N.B., K.B. Ambrose, and A.P. Watson. 1994. Toxicity of the organophosphate chemical warfare agents GA, GB, and VX: Implications for public protection. Environmental Health Perspectives 102(1): 18−38. NRC (National Research Council). 1999. Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001a. Disposal of Neutralent Wastes. Washington, DC.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001b. Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001c. Occupational Health and Workplace Monitoring at Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2001d. Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guidelines Levels for Hazardous Chemicals. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2002. Systems and Technologies for the Treatment of Non-Stockpile Chemical Warfare Materiel. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2003. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 3. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2004a. Assessment of the Army Plan for the Pine Bluff Non-Stockpile Facility. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2004b. Effects of Degraded Agent and Munitions Anomalies on Chemical Stockpile Disposal Operations. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Reutter, S.A., R.J. Mioduszewski, and S.A. Thomson. 2000. Evaluation of Airborne Exposure Limits for VX: Worker and General Population Exposure Criteria, ECBC-TR-074. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. Thurbide, K.B., and W.A. Aue. 1994. Reactive-flow luminescence detector for gas chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A 684(2): 259−268. Tripler, D., K. Raghuveer, R. Rhoads, A. Amr, and J. Miller. 2001. Independent Evaluation of the Rapid Response System, Safety and Environmental Performance. Mitretek Technical Report MTR 2001-22. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 1995. Army Regulation 50-6, Chemical Surety. June 26. Washington, D.C.: Headquarters, Department of the Army. U.S. Army. 1996. Survey and Analysis Report. 2nd edition (draft), December. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel. U.S. Army. 1999. Engineering and Design—Ordnance and Explosive Response. ER 1110-1-8153, May 14. Available online at http://www.usace.army.mil/inet/usace-docs/eng-regs/er1110-1-8153/. Accessed October 19, 2004. U.S. Army. 2000a. Chemical Warfare Materiel (CWM) Air Monitoring Plan for Explosive Destruction System (EDS) in Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado. Version 4, December. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Soldier and Biological, Chemical Command. U.S. Army. 2000b. Evaluation of Airborne Exposure Limits for Sulfur Mustard: Occupational and General Population Exposure Criteria. Technical Report 47-EM-3767-00, November. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine. U.S. Army 2001a. Army Regulation 385-61. Available online at http://www.army.mil/usapa/epubs/pdf/r385_61.pdf. Last accessed February 16, 2005. U.S. Army. 2001b. Emergency Destruction Plan for M139 Bomblets Filled with GB at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado, using the Explosive Destruction System (EDS). Final Revision 3, January. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel. U.S. Army. 2001c. Rapid Response System Test Report. Final, October. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 2001d. Non-Stockpile Systems Program, Rapid Response System (RRS). After Action Report, November. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel. U.S. Army. 2001e. CERTIFY 4.0 User’s Manual. January. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 2002. Department of the Army Pamphlet 385-61: Toxic Chemical Agent Safety Standards, March 27. Available online at http://www.army.mil/usapa/epubs/pdf/p385_61.pdf. Last accessed September 10, 2004. U.S. Army. 2003a. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Hazardous Waste Permit Application for the Department for the Army Pine Bluff Non-Stockpile Facility, February. Pine Bluff, Ark.: Pine Bluff Arsenal Public Affairs Office. U.S. Army. 2003b. Spring Valley Formerly Used Defense Site Washington, D.C., Explosive Destruction System Air Monitoring Plan. Final, April. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. U.S. Army. 2003c. Proposed Destruction of Chemical Agent Identification Sets Stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas, Environmental Assessment. February. Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Md.: U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization and Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel. U.S. Army. 2004a. One third of the nation’s chemical agent now safely destroyed, press release, December 28. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. Chemical Materials Agency. U.S. Army. 2004b. Implementation Guidance Policy for Revised Airborne Exposures Limits for GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, H, HD, and HT. June 18. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations and Environment). U.S. Army. 2004c. Standing Operating Procedure for Explosive Destruction Systems Phase 1, Units 2 and 3 Operations. Final Revisions, Annex I, March. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel. U.S. Army. 2004d. Plan for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, Using the Explosive Destruction System, Final Revision 2, March. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel. U.S. Army. 2004e. RRS Standard Operating Procedure for Handling Hazardous Waste Drums, Revision 0, August. Pine Bluff, Arkansas: Pine Bluff Arsenal. U.S. Army. 2004f. Programmatic Laboratory and Monitoring Quality Assurance Program. Final, June. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Chemical Materials Agency. U.S. Army. 2004g. Programmatic Monitoring Concept Plan. Final, June. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Chemical Materials Agency. U.S. Army. 2004h. Airborne Exposure Limits Focus Groups. Final Report, August 31. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine. Weddle, B.R. 1983. Recurring Issues in Preparing RCRA Permits. Washington, D.C.: EPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Witkiewicz, Z., M. Mazurek, and J. Szulc. 1990. Chromatographic analysis of chemical warfare agents. Journal of Chromatography 503: 293−357. Yang, Y.-C., L.L. Szafraniec, W.T. Beardry, and D.K. Rohrbaugh. 1990. Oxidative detoxification of phosphonothiolates. Journal of the American Chemical Society 112(18): 6621−6627.

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