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Introduction

The distribution systems of public drinking water supplies include the pipes and other conveyances that connect treatment plants to consumers’ taps. They span almost 1 billion miles in the United States (Kirmeyer et al., 1994) and include an estimated 154,000 finished water storage facilities (AWWA, 2003). Public water supplies serve 273 million residential and commercial customers, although the vast majority (93 percent) of systems serves less than 10,000 people (EPA, 2004). As the U.S. population grows and communities expand, 13,200 miles of new pipes are installed each year (Kirmeyer et al., 1994).

Distribution systems constitute a significant management challenge from both an operational and public health standpoint. Furthermore, they represent the vast majority of physical infrastructure for water supplies, such that their repair and replacement represent an enormous financial liability. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates the 20-year water transmission and distribution needs of the country to be $83.2 billion, with storage facility infrastructure needs estimated at $18.4 billion (EPA, 1999).

Most federal water quality regulations pertaining to drinking water, such as Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) and treatment technique requirements for microbial and chemical contaminants, are applied before or at the point where water enters the distribution system. The major rules that specifically target water quality within the distribution system are the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), which addresses the minimum required detectable disinfectant residual and the maximum allowed heterotrophic bacterial plate count, and the Total Coliform Rule. In addition, the Disinfectants/Disinfection By-Products Rule (D/DBPR) addresses the maximum disinfectant residual and concentration of disinfection byproducts like total trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids allowed in distribution systems. Of all these rules, the Total Coliform Rule (TCR) of 1989 explicitly addresses microbial water quality in the distribution system. The TCR applies to all public water supplies, both groundwater and surface water, and requires (among other things) an MCL of less than 5 percent of water samples testing positive for total coliforms in any month for systems serving more than 33,000, and that there be no more than one positive sample per month for systems serving less than 33,000 (Guilaran, 2004). Sampling of distribution systems varies widely, from as many as hundreds of samples per month to one sample per year, depending on the size of the system. This and other information gathered since the rule was first drafted suggest that the TCR is limited in its ability to ensure public health protection from microbial contamination of distribution systems. Indeed, some epidemiological and outbreak investigations conducted in the last five years suggest that a substantial propor-



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Public Water Supply Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks - First Report 1 Introduction The distribution systems of public drinking water supplies include the pipes and other conveyances that connect treatment plants to consumers’ taps. They span almost 1 billion miles in the United States (Kirmeyer et al., 1994) and include an estimated 154,000 finished water storage facilities (AWWA, 2003). Public water supplies serve 273 million residential and commercial customers, although the vast majority (93 percent) of systems serves less than 10,000 people (EPA, 2004). As the U.S. population grows and communities expand, 13,200 miles of new pipes are installed each year (Kirmeyer et al., 1994). Distribution systems constitute a significant management challenge from both an operational and public health standpoint. Furthermore, they represent the vast majority of physical infrastructure for water supplies, such that their repair and replacement represent an enormous financial liability. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates the 20-year water transmission and distribution needs of the country to be $83.2 billion, with storage facility infrastructure needs estimated at $18.4 billion (EPA, 1999). Most federal water quality regulations pertaining to drinking water, such as Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) and treatment technique requirements for microbial and chemical contaminants, are applied before or at the point where water enters the distribution system. The major rules that specifically target water quality within the distribution system are the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), which addresses the minimum required detectable disinfectant residual and the maximum allowed heterotrophic bacterial plate count, and the Total Coliform Rule. In addition, the Disinfectants/Disinfection By-Products Rule (D/DBPR) addresses the maximum disinfectant residual and concentration of disinfection byproducts like total trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids allowed in distribution systems. Of all these rules, the Total Coliform Rule (TCR) of 1989 explicitly addresses microbial water quality in the distribution system. The TCR applies to all public water supplies, both groundwater and surface water, and requires (among other things) an MCL of less than 5 percent of water samples testing positive for total coliforms in any month for systems serving more than 33,000, and that there be no more than one positive sample per month for systems serving less than 33,000 (Guilaran, 2004). Sampling of distribution systems varies widely, from as many as hundreds of samples per month to one sample per year, depending on the size of the system. This and other information gathered since the rule was first drafted suggest that the TCR is limited in its ability to ensure public health protection from microbial contamination of distribution systems. Indeed, some epidemiological and outbreak investigations conducted in the last five years suggest that a substantial propor-

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Public Water Supply Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks - First Report tion of waterborne disease outbreaks, both microbial and chemical, is attributable to problems within distribution systems (Craun and Calderon, 2001; Blackburn et al., 2004). Distribution system deficiencies were pinpointed as the cause of 57 reported community outbreaks from 1991 to 1998 (EPA, 2002b). There is no evidence that the current regulatory program has resulted in a diminution in the proportion of outbreaks attributable to distribution system related factors. In 2000, EPA drew attention to distribution systems in making recommendations for the Microbial/Disinfection By-products Rule (M/DBPR) by agreeing to evaluate available data and research on aspects of distribution systems that may create risks to public health. Furthermore, in 2003 EPA committed to revising the TCR—not only to update the provisions about the frequency and location of monitoring, follow-up monitoring after total coliform positive samples, and the basis of the MCL, but also to address the broader issue of whether the TCR could be revised to encompass “distribution system integrity.” That is, EPA is exploring the possibility of revising the TCR to provide a comprehensive approach for addressing water quality in the distribution system environment. To aid in this process, EPA requested the input of the National Academies’ Water Science and Technology Board, which was asked to conduct a study of water quality issues associated with public water supply distribution systems and their potential risks to consumers. The expert committee formed to conduct the study will consider, but not be limited to, specific aspects of distribution systems such as cross connections and backflow, intrusion caused by pressure transients, nitrification, permeation and leaching, repair and replacement of water mains, aging infrastructure, and microbial growth. The committee’s statement of task is to: 1—Identify trends relevant to the deterioration of drinking water in water supply distribution systems, as background and based on available information. 2—Identify and prioritize issues of greatest concern for distribution systems based on review of published material. 3—Focusing on the highest priority issues as revealed by task #2, (a) evaluate different approaches for characterization of public health risks posed by water-quality deteriorating events or conditions that may occur in public water supply distribution systems; and (b) identify and evaluate the effectiveness of relevant existing codes and regulations and identify general actions, strategies, performance measures, and policies that could be considered by water utilities and other stakeholders to reduce the risks posed by water-quality deteriorating events or conditions. Case studies, either at state or utility level, where distribution system control programs (e.g., Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System, cross connection control, etc.) have been successfully designed and implemented will be identified and recommendations will be presented in their context.

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Public Water Supply Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks - First Report 4—Identify advances in detection, monitoring and modeling, analytical methods, information needs and technologies, research and development opportunities, and communication strategies that will enable the water supply industry and other stakeholders to further reduce risks associated with public water supply distribution systems. This first report relates the committee’s progress on Tasks 1 and 2—that is, trends relevant to the deterioration of distribution system water quality and the issues that the committee thinks are the highest priorities for consideration during TCR revision to encompass distribution system integrity. Conclusions and recommendations related to distribution system issues that EPA may want to take into consideration are sprinkled throughout the text, and a short summary of the committee’s prioritization is given at the end.