tion of waterborne disease outbreaks, both microbial and chemical, is attributable to problems within distribution systems (Craun and Calderon, 2001; Blackburn et al., 2004). Distribution system deficiencies were pinpointed as the cause of 57 reported community outbreaks from 1991 to 1998 (EPA, 2002b). There is no evidence that the current regulatory program has resulted in a diminution in the proportion of outbreaks attributable to distribution system related factors.
In 2000, EPA drew attention to distribution systems in making recommendations for the Microbial/Disinfection By-products Rule (M/DBPR) by agreeing to evaluate available data and research on aspects of distribution systems that may create risks to public health. Furthermore, in 2003 EPA committed to revising the TCR—not only to update the provisions about the frequency and location of monitoring, follow-up monitoring after total coliform positive samples, and the basis of the MCL, but also to address the broader issue of whether the TCR could be revised to encompass “distribution system integrity.” That is, EPA is exploring the possibility of revising the TCR to provide a comprehensive approach for addressing water quality in the distribution system environment. To aid in this process, EPA requested the input of the National Academies’ Water Science and Technology Board, which was asked to conduct a study of water quality issues associated with public water supply distribution systems and their potential risks to consumers.
The expert committee formed to conduct the study will consider, but not be limited to, specific aspects of distribution systems such as cross connections and backflow, intrusion caused by pressure transients, nitrification, permeation and leaching, repair and replacement of water mains, aging infrastructure, and microbial growth. The committee’s statement of task is to:
1—Identify trends relevant to the deterioration of drinking water in water supply distribution systems, as background and based on available information.
2—Identify and prioritize issues of greatest concern for distribution systems based on review of published material.
3—Focusing on the highest priority issues as revealed by task #2, (a) evaluate different approaches for characterization of public health risks posed by water-quality deteriorating events or conditions that may occur in public water supply distribution systems; and (b) identify and evaluate the effectiveness of relevant existing codes and regulations and identify general actions, strategies, performance measures, and policies that could be considered by water utilities and other stakeholders to reduce the risks posed by water-quality deteriorating events or conditions. Case studies, either at state or utility level, where distribution system control programs (e.g., Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System, cross connection control, etc.) have been successfully designed and implemented will be identified and recommendations will be presented in their context.