References

Abhijeet, D. 2004. Reconsidering lead corrosion in drinking water: product testing, direct chloramine attack and galvanic corrosion. Virginia Tech MS Thesis.

American Water Works Association (AWWA). 2001. Reinvesting in drinking water structure: dawn of the replacement era. Denver, CO: AWWA.

AWWA. 2003. Water Stats 2002 Distribution Survey CD-ROM. Denver, CO: AWWA.

AWWA and EES, Inc. 2002a. Permeation and leaching. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/permleach.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005.

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American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF). 2004. Managing distribution retention time to improve water quality: phase I. Report no. 91006F (RFP 2769). Denver, CO: Binnie Black and Veatch and AWWARF.

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Berend, K., G. Van Der Voet, and W. H. Boer. 2001. Acute aluminum encephalopathy in a dialysis center caused by a cement mortar water distribution pipe. Kidney International 59(2):746–753.

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Blackburn, B. G., G. F. Craun, J. S. Yoder, V. Hill, R. L. Calderon, N. Chen, S. H. Lee, D. A. Levy, and M. J. Beach. 2004. Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks associated with drinking water—United States, 2001–2002. MMWR 53(SS-8):23-45.

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Public Water Supply Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks - First Report References Abhijeet, D. 2004. Reconsidering lead corrosion in drinking water: product testing, direct chloramine attack and galvanic corrosion. Virginia Tech MS Thesis. American Water Works Association (AWWA). 2001. Reinvesting in drinking water structure: dawn of the replacement era. Denver, CO: AWWA. AWWA. 2003. Water Stats 2002 Distribution Survey CD-ROM. Denver, CO: AWWA. AWWA and EES, Inc. 2002a. Permeation and leaching. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/permleach.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005. AWWA and EES, Inc. 2002b. Effects of water age on distribution system water quality. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/waterage.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005. AWWA and EES, Inc. 2002c. Finished water storage facilities. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/storage.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005. AWWA and EES, Inc. 2002d. Nitrification. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/nitrification.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005. AWWA and EES, Inc. 2002e. New or repaired water mains. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/maincontam.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005. American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF). 2004. Managing distribution retention time to improve water quality: phase I. Report no. 91006F (RFP 2769). Denver, CO: Binnie Black and Veatch and AWWARF. American Water Works Service Co., Inc. (AWWSC). 2002. Deteriorating buried infrastructure management challenges and strategies. Available on-line at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/tcr/pdf/infrastructure.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005. Anadu, E. C., and A. K. Harding. 2000. Risk perception and bottled water use. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 92 (11):82–92. Anderson, W. B., R. M. Slawson, and C. I. Mayfield. 2002. A review of drinking-water-associated endotoxin, including potential routes of human exposure. Can. J. Microbiol. 48:567–587. Bellen, G. E., S. H. Abrishami, P. M. Colucci, and C. Tremel. 1993. Methods for assessing the biological growth support potential of water contact materials. Denver, CO: AWWARF. Berend, K., G. Van Der Voet, and W. H. Boer. 2001. Acute aluminum encephalopathy in a dialysis center caused by a cement mortar water distribution pipe. Kidney International 59(2):746–753. Bitton, G. 1994. Role of microorganisms in biogeochemical cycles. Pp. 51–73 In Wastewater Microbiology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Blackburn, B. G., G. F. Craun, J. S. Yoder, V. Hill, R. L. Calderon, N. Chen, S. H. Lee, D. A. Levy, and M. J. Beach. 2004. Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks associated with drinking water—United States, 2001–2002. MMWR 53(SS-8):23-45. Bouchard, D. C., M. K. Williams, and R. Y. Surampalli. 1992. Nitrate contamination of groundwater: sources and potential health effects. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 84(9):84–90.

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Public Water Supply Distribution Systems: Assessing and Reducing Risks - First Report Boulos, P. F., W. M. Grayman, R. W. Bowcock, J. W. Clapp, L. A. Rossman, R. M. Clark, R. A. Deininger, and A. K. Dhingra. 1996. Hydraulic mixing and free chlorine residual in reservoirs. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 88(7):48–59. Boulos, P. F., K. E. Lansey, and B. W. Karney. 2004. Comprehensive Water Distribution Systems Analysis Handbook for Engineers and Planners. Pasadena, CA: MWH Soft Pub. Bryant, E. A., G. P. Fulton, and G. C. Budd. 1992. Chloramination. Pp. 128-170 In Disinfection Alternatives for Safe Drinking Water. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Burlingame, G. A., and H. M. Neukrug. 1993. Developing proper sanitation requirements and procedures for water main disinfection. In Proceedings of AWWA Annual Conference. Denver, CO: AWWA. Burlingame, G. A., and C. Anselme. 1995. Distribution system tastes and odors. In Advances in Taste-and-Odor Treatment and Control. AWWA Research Foundation Cooperative Research Report. Denver, CO: AWWARF. Calderon, R. L., and E. W. Mood. 1991. Bacteria colonizing point-of-entry, granular activated carbon filters and their relationship to human health. CR-813978-01-0. Washington, D.C.: EPA. Camper, A. K., M. W. LeChevallier, S. C. Broadway, and G. A. McFeters. 1986. Bacteria associated with granular activated carbon particles in drinking water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:434–438. Carson, L. A., L. A. Bland, L. B. Cusick, M. S. Favero, G. A. Bolan, A. L. Reingold, and R. A. Good. 1988. Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in water supplies of hemodialysis centers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:3122–3125. CDA. 2004. Copper facts. Available on-line at http://www.copper.org/education/c-facts/c-plumbing.html. Accessed February 11, 2005. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Cancer survivorship—United States, 1971–2001. MMWR 53(24):526-529. Characklis, W. G. 1988. Bacterial regrowth in distribution systems. Denver, CO: AWWARF. Choi, J., M. Fadel, L. Gammie, J. Rahman, and J. Paran. 1994. Sniff new mains…before customers complain. Opflow 20:10:3. Clark, R. M., W. M. Grayman, J. A. Good rich, R. A. Deininger, and A. F. Hess. 1991. Field testing distribution water quality models. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 83(7):67–75. Clark, R. M., E. E. Geldreich, K. R. Fox, E. W. Rice, C. H.Johnson, J. A. Goodrich, J. A. Barnick, and F. Abdesaken. 1996. Tracking a Salmonella serovar typhimurium outbreak in Gideon, Missouri: role of contaminant propagation modelling. Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology-Aqua. 45:171–183. Colbourne, J. S., D. J. Pratt, M. G. Smith, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, and D. Harper. 1984. Water fittings as sources of Legionella pneumophila in hospital plumbing system. Lancet i:210–213. Craun, G. F., and R. L. Calderon. 2001. Waterborne disease outbreaks caused by distribution system deficiencies. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 93(9):64–75. Coss, A., K. P. Cantor, J. S. Reif, C. F. Lynch, and M. H. Ward. 2004. Pancreatic cancer and drinking water and dietary sources of nitrate and nitrite. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 159(7):693–701. De Roos, A. J., M. H. Ward, C. F. Lynch, and K. P. Cantor. 2003. Nitrate in public water supplies and the risk of colon and rectum cancers. Epidemiology 14(6):640–649. duMoulin, G. C., K. D. Stottmeier, P. A. Pelletier, T. A. Tsang, and J. Hedley-Whyte. 1988. Concentration of Mycobacterium avium by hospital hot water systems. J. Amer. Medical Assoc. 260:1599–1601.

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