Boulos, P. F., W. M. Grayman, R. W. Bowcock, J. W. Clapp, L. A. Rossman, R. M. Clark, R. A. Deininger, and A. K. Dhingra. 1996. Hydraulic mixing and free chlorine residual in reservoirs. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 88(7):48–59.

Boulos, P. F., K. E. Lansey, and B. W. Karney. 2004. Comprehensive Water Distribution Systems Analysis Handbook for Engineers and Planners. Pasadena, CA: MWH Soft Pub.

Bryant, E. A., G. P. Fulton, and G. C. Budd. 1992. Chloramination. Pp. 128-170 In Disinfection Alternatives for Safe Drinking Water. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Burlingame, G. A., and H. M. Neukrug. 1993. Developing proper sanitation requirements and procedures for water main disinfection. In Proceedings of AWWA Annual Conference. Denver, CO: AWWA.

Burlingame, G. A., and C. Anselme. 1995. Distribution system tastes and odors. In Advances in Taste-and-Odor Treatment and Control. AWWA Research Foundation Cooperative Research Report. Denver, CO: AWWARF.


Calderon, R. L., and E. W. Mood. 1991. Bacteria colonizing point-of-entry, granular activated carbon filters and their relationship to human health. CR-813978-01-0. Washington, D.C.: EPA.

Camper, A. K., M. W. LeChevallier, S. C. Broadway, and G. A. McFeters. 1986. Bacteria associated with granular activated carbon particles in drinking water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:434–438.

Carson, L. A., L. A. Bland, L. B. Cusick, M. S. Favero, G. A. Bolan, A. L. Reingold, and R. A. Good. 1988. Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in water supplies of hemodialysis centers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:3122–3125.

CDA. 2004. Copper facts. Available on-line at http://www.copper.org/education/c-facts/c-plumbing.html. Accessed February 11, 2005.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Cancer survivorship—United States, 1971–2001. MMWR 53(24):526-529.

Characklis, W. G. 1988. Bacterial regrowth in distribution systems. Denver, CO: AWWARF.

Choi, J., M. Fadel, L. Gammie, J. Rahman, and J. Paran. 1994. Sniff new mains…before customers complain. Opflow 20:10:3.

Clark, R. M., W. M. Grayman, J. A. Good rich, R. A. Deininger, and A. F. Hess. 1991. Field testing distribution water quality models. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 83(7):67–75.

Clark, R. M., E. E. Geldreich, K. R. Fox, E. W. Rice, C. H.Johnson, J. A. Goodrich, J. A. Barnick, and F. Abdesaken. 1996. Tracking a Salmonella serovar typhimurium outbreak in Gideon, Missouri: role of contaminant propagation modelling. Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology-Aqua. 45:171–183.

Colbourne, J. S., D. J. Pratt, M. G. Smith, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, and D. Harper. 1984. Water fittings as sources of Legionella pneumophila in hospital plumbing system. Lancet i:210–213.

Craun, G. F., and R. L. Calderon. 2001. Waterborne disease outbreaks caused by distribution system deficiencies. J. Amer. Water Works Assoc. 93(9):64–75.

Coss, A., K. P. Cantor, J. S. Reif, C. F. Lynch, and M. H. Ward. 2004. Pancreatic cancer and drinking water and dietary sources of nitrate and nitrite. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 159(7):693–701.


De Roos, A. J., M. H. Ward, C. F. Lynch, and K. P. Cantor. 2003. Nitrate in public water supplies and the risk of colon and rectum cancers. Epidemiology 14(6):640–649.

duMoulin, G. C., K. D. Stottmeier, P. A. Pelletier, T. A. Tsang, and J. Hedley-Whyte. 1988. Concentration of Mycobacterium avium by hospital hot water systems. J. Amer. Medical Assoc. 260:1599–1601.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement