but could result in cancer induction some years or decades later.2 Consequences also could be described in terms of economic damage. These could arise, for example, from the loss of use of the facility and surrounding areas or costs to clean up those areas. There also could be severe psychological consequences that could drive changes in public acceptance of commercial nuclear energy.

The quantitative expression for the risk of a particular scenario, for example a suicide terrorist attack with a hijacked airliner, is


The total risk would be the sum of the risks for all possible independent attack scenarios. For example, if a spent fuel storage facility was determined to be vulnerable to attacks using airliners, truck bombs, and armed assaults, the total risk would be calculated as


Such equations are routinely used to calculate the risks of various industrial accidents, including accidents at nuclear power plants, through a process known as probabilistic risk assessment. Each accident is assigned a numerical probability based on a careful analysis of the sequence of failures (e.g., human or mechanical failures) that could produce the accident. The consequences of such accidents are typically expressed in terms of injurles, deaths, or economic losses.

It is possible to estimate the risks of industrial accidents because there are sufficient experience and data to quantify the probabilities and consequences. This is not the case for terrorist attacks. To date, experts have not found a way to apply these quantitative risk equations to terrorist attacks because of two primary difficulties: The first is to develop a complete set of bounding scenarios for such attacks; the second is to estimate their probabilities. These depend on impossible-to-quantify factors such as terrorist motivations, expertise, and access to technical means.3 They also depend on the effectiveness of measures that might prevent or mitigate such attacks.

In the absence of quantitative information on risks, one could attempt to make qualitative risk comparisons. Such comparisons could estimate, for example, the relative risks of attacks on spent fuel storage facilities versus attacks on commercial nuclear power reactors or other critical infrastructure such as chemical plants. Although a comparison of such risks is beyond the scope of this study, the committee recognizes that policy decisions about spent fuel storage may need to take into account such comparative risk issues,


Such cancers would likely not be directly traceable to the radiation dose received from a terrorist attack and would likely be indistinguishable from the large population of cancers that result from other causes.


Political scientists and counter-terror specialists have argued whether terrorists seek headlines, casualties, or both (e.g., Jenkins 1975, 1985), The September 11, 2001, attacks in the United States and the March 11, 2004, attacks in Spain demonstrate that some terrorists, particularly those of al-Qaida and its allies, intend to commit mass murder and/or mass economic disruption, both of which may have important political consequences. Further information about the motivation of terrorists is provided in NRC (2002).

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