History of Plutonium Production Reactors

United States: 9 graphite-moderated, light-water-cooled production reactors deployed at the Hanford site and 5 heavy-water-moderated production reactors deployed at Savannah River (none still operating).

Former Soviet Union/Russia: 13 graphite-moderated, light-water-cooled production reactors at Chelyabinsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk (of which 3 dual-purpose reactors are still operating to supply heat and electricity in the Krasnoyarsk and Tomsk regions).

United Kingdom: a total of 10 graphite-moderated, gas-cooled production reactors at Windscale, Calder Hall, and Chapel Cross (none still operating).

France: 9 graphite-moderated, gas-cooled reactors at Marcoule and two heavy-water moderated reactors at Celestin (none still operating); the prototype liquid-metal-cooled, fast-neutron breeder reactor (the Phénix) was shut down for maintenance between 1998 and 2003 and has reportedly returned to operation.

China: 2 graphite-moderated, light-water-cooled reactors, one at Jiuquan and one at Guangyuan (none still operating).

Israel: a heavy-water-moderated, air- and heavy-water-cooled production reactor at Dimona.

India: 2 heavy-water-moderated production reactors near Bombay.

North Korea: a graphite-moderated, gas-cooled production reactor at Yonbyon.

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