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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the summary were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This summary is available on the internet from the National Academy Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055, (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); internet <>.

This summary is funded in part by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Task order 56-DKNA-0-95111); Federal Emergency Management Agency (EMW-2003-SA-0246); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (W-24679); U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior (under Assistance Award No. 03HQAAG000410), Pacific Gas and Electric; the Institute for Business and Home Safety; the Public Entity Risk Institute; and PB Alltech, Inc. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views, official policies, either expressed or implied, of NOAA or any of its subagencies, or FEMA, NASA, or USGS.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMS-0335360. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the authors and do not reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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