sions in a Democratic Society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. 1996b. Understanding Violence Against Women. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. 1998a. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. 1998b. Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. 1998c. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. 1999. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders. A Review of the Evidence; Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Report. Workshop Summary, and Workshop Papers. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. 2000a. Addressing the Nation’s Changing Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. 2000b. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. 2001a. Educating Children with Autism. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. 2001b. Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council. 2004a. Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research. Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press.
National Research Council. 2004b. Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
National Research Council. 2005. Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
National Science Foundation. 1997. Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1995. Division of Science Resources Studies, NSF 97-319. Arlington, VA.
National Science Foundation. 2002. Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Division of Science Resources Statistics WebCASPAR Database. Available at http://caspar.nsf.gov/TableBuilder;jsessionid=B9D03B124DD406744DB4355BE3DB1C94. Accessed October 22, 2004.
National Science Foundation. 2004. Research and Development in Industry, 1993 and Science and Engineering Indicators.
National Science Foundation. 2004. Survey of Industrial Research and Development: 1994. NSF 96-304 and National Science Foundation, InfoBrief: Industrial R&D Employment in the United States and U.S. Multinational Corporations, NSF 05-302, December.
Pion, G. M. 2000. Office of Extramural Research, National Institutes of Health. The Early Career Progress of NRSA Predoctoral Trainees and Fellows. Bethesda, MD: NIH.
Rapoport, A. 1999. Does the educational debt burden of science and engineering doctorates differ by race/ethnicity and sex? Division of Science Resources Studies Issue Brief. NSF 99-341 1999. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.
Regets, M. C. 1998. Has the use of postdocs changed? Division of Science Resources Studies Issue Brief. NSF 99-310 12/2/98. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.
Reinhardt, U. E., P. S. Hussey, and G. F. Anderson 2002. Cross-national comparisons of health systems using OECD data 1999. Health Affairs 21(3).
Rosenfield, P. L. 1992. The potential of transdisciplinary research for sustaining and extending linkages between the health and social science, Social Science & Medicine 35, 1343–1357.
Science: Next Wave. 2002. The Grant Doctor. Available at http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2002/10/10/2. and http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2002/10/23/8. Accessed 10/ 22/2004.
Shulman, L. E. 1996. Clinical Research 1996: Stirrings from the Academic Health Centers. Academic Medicine, 71(4):362–63, 398.
Sung, N. S., et al. 2003. Central challenges facing the national clinical research enterprise. Journal of the American Medical Association. 289(October):1278–1287.
Tabulations from the Higher Education Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Education.
Tsapogas, J. 2001. Retention of the Best Underrepresented Minority Graduates in Science and Engineering. Making Strides: Quarterly Research Newsletter. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 3(January):1–12.
U.S. Congress, 1976. Health Research and Health Services Amendments of 1976, H.R.7988: P.L. 94–278. 94th Cong., 2nd sess., 22 April 1976.
U.S. Congress, 1978. Health Services Research, Health Statistics, and Health Care Technology Act of 1978. P.L. 95-623, Section 3. 95th Cong., 2nd session, 9 November 1978.
U.S. Congress, 1985. Health Research Extension Act of 1985, P.L. 99–158. 99th Cong., 1st sess., 20 November 1985.
U.S. Congress, 1988. Health omnibus programs extension of 1988. P.L. 100–607. Title I, Section 151. Title VI, Section 635. 102 Statutes 3058, 3148. 100th Cong., 2nd sess., 4 November 1988.
U.S. Congress, 1993. National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act Of 1993. P.L. 103-43. Title XVI, Section 1601, 1602, 1632, 1641. Title XX, Section 2008(b)14. 107 Statutes 181, 186, 211. 103rd Congress, 10 June 1993.
U.S. Congress, Senate, 1973. Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. National Research Service Award Act of 1974. 93rd Cong., 1st sess., S. Rept. 93-381.
U.S. General Accounting Office, 1987. Division of Human Resources. Medical research: national research service awards for research in primary medical care. A report to the chairman, Subcommittee on Health and the Environment, and the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
U.S. Department of Education. 2000. Table 140. National Center for Education Statistics, Sources: High School and Beyond. First follow-up surveys: 1990 High School Transcript Study, and National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, Second follow-up surveys: 1994 High School Transcript Study, and 1998 High School Transcript Study.
Weaver, R. G., K. Haden, and R. W. Valachovic. 2002. Annual ADEA survey of dental school seniors: 2001 graduating class. Journal of Dental Education 66(October):1209–1222.
Weaver, R. G., K. Haden, and R. W. Valachovic. 2002. Annual ADEA survey of dental school seniors: 2002 graduating class. Journal of Dental Education 66(December):1388–1404.