Appendix E
Characteristics of Doctorates



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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs Appendix E Characteristics of Doctorates

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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs TABLE E-1 Characteristics of Doctorates in the Biomedical Sciences, 1973–2003   1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Total Doctorates 2,882 3,132 3,116 3,135 3,013 3,085 3,150 3,050 3,118 3,212 Males 2,420 2,572 2,530 2,474 2,340 2,347 2,424 2,351 2,311 2,351 Females 462 560 586 661 673 738 726 699 807 861 Citizens 2,385 2,591 2,573 2,582 2,381 2,556 2,610 2,528 2,628 2,738 Permanent residents 160 198 215 231 209 194 165 169 147 133 Temporary residents 312 266 256 253 283 256 277 261 259 253 Unknown 25 77 72 69 140 79 98 92 84 88 Minorities 2 1 3 80 84 86 80 78 108 79 Postdoctoral training   Postdoctoral fellowship 1,008 1,016 965 1,000 863 1,102 1,176 1,212 1,313 1,314 Postdoctoral research 317 389 402 435 505 536 503 528 535 500 Postdoctoral traineeship 64 84 83 46 39 54 56 69 75 100 Other training 78 89 148 160 173 199 202 157 163 213 Total postdoctorates 1,467 1,578 1,598 1,641 1,580 1,891 1,937 1,966 2,086 2,127 Percent planning 52.8% 54.0% 55.1% 55.9% 57.5% 65.0% 65.9% 68.5% 71.5% 70.4% Employment 1,246 1,275 1,246 1,236 1,113 968 962 880 809 877 Other 63 70 59 61 54 49 42 25 24 17 Ph.D. with plans 2,776 2,923 2,903 2,938 2,747 2,908 2,941 2,871 2,919 3,021 Time to degree 5.92 6 6 6.17 6.17 6 6.17 6.25 6.33 6.41 Registered time to degree 5.41 5.42 5.67 5.75 5.67 5.59 5.75 5.75 5.91 5.91 Age at time of degree 28.92 29 29.42 29.58 29.42 29.25 29.25 29.34 29.38 29.41   1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Total Doctorates 3,465 3,769 3,793 3,992 4,294 4,442 4,794 4,863 5,079 5,366 Males 2,214 2,377 2,348 2,477 2,655 2,740 2,864 2,887 2,955 3,102 Females 1,251 1,392 1,445 1,515 1,639 1,702 1,930 1,976 2,124 2,264 Citizens 2,670 2,858 2,850 2,899 3,050 3,072 3,264 3,203 3,278 3,291 Permanent residents 153 176 173 183 210 240 296 641 831 801 Temporary residents 455 515 570 814 987 1,078 1,165 980 918 1,173 Unknown 187 220 200 96 62 66 98 57 73 121 Minorities 128 123 135 135 159 162 190 223 243 246 Postdoctoral training   Postdoctoral fellowship 1,470 1,650 1,652 1,766 1,900 2,011 2,243 2,234 2,358 2,380 Postdoctoral research 657 704 679 811 879 894 940 968 994 1,031 Postdoctoral traineeship 75 81 65 76 87 81 99 111 107 115 Other training 217 216 260 233 294 307 332 313 346 406 Total postdoctorates 2,419 2,651 2,656 2,886 3,160 3,293 3,614 3,626 3,805 3,932 Percent planning 74.9% 75.8% 75.1% 77.0% 77.0% 77.2% 78.6% 78.1% 7.9% 77.7% Employment 776 815 856 820 902 936 939 974 963 1,077 Other 36 32 27 43 40 35 45 40 48 52 Ph.D. with plans 3,231 3,498 3,539 3,749 4,102 4,264 4,598 4,640 4,816 5,061 Time to degree 7.33 7.42 7.42 7.58 7.5 7.59 7.67 7.75 7.83 7.67 Registered time to degree 6.5 6.58 6.5 6.59 6.58 6.75 6.75 6.75 6.83 6.83 Age at time of degree 30.5 30.83 30.92 31.17 31.08 31.17 31.17 31.17 31.25 31.25

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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 3,396 3,356 3,444 3,338 3,399 3,313 3,369 2,440 2,383 2,417 2,224 2,315 2,192 2,197 956 973 1,027 1,114 1,084 1,121 1,172 2,905 2,898 2,927 2,854 2,868 2,727 2,751 147 125 114 108 109 113 118 273 248 294 291 308 364 343 71 85 109 85 114 109 157 83 91 94 86 99 104 119 1,362 1,364 1,385 1,313 1,446 1,409 1,415 626 616 625 668 625 634 699 103 70 78 70 68 66 58 225 255 275 247 238 200 196 2,316 2,305 2,363 2,298 2,377 2,309 2,368 71.6% 72.3% 72.6% 72.1% 74.2% 73.8% 74.9% 891 865 860 851 791 790 759 29 20 31 37 34 28 36 3,236 3,190 3,254 3,186 3,202 3,127 3,163 6.5 6.5 6.67 7 7.09 7.17 7.25 6 6 6 6.17 6.33 6.42 6.41 29.25 29.33 29.59 29.83 30.25 30.42 30.59 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 5,459 5,465 5,340 5,547 5,397 5,375 5,412 3,110 3,113 3,074 3,060 2,984 3,015 2,960 2,349 2,352 2,266 2,478 2,403 2,358 2,439 3,451 3,492 3,438 3,620 3,623 3,563 3,534 562 533 477 364 341 315 266 1,233 1,213 1,224 1,336 1,202 1,222 1,341 243 241 218 227 231 275 366 261 277 308 315 364 367 358 2,293 2,312 2,223 2,340 2,170 2,269 2,343 979 1,027 977 931 882 884 932 87 69 75 148 102 109 172 193 250 476 362 387 273 311 3,552 3,658 3,751 3,781 3,541 3,535 3,758 71.1% 73.0% 75.8% 73.6% 71.0% 71.3% 75.0% 1,288 1,257 1,152 1,276 1,373 1,368 1,193 156 93 43 83 76 58 60 4,996 5,008 4,946 5,140 4,990 4,961 5,011 7.92 7.83 7.59 7.75 7.83 7.59 7.59 6.92 6.92 6.75 6.84 6.92 6.75 6.67 31 30.92 30.83 30.91 30.83 30.67 30.58

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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs TABLE E-2 Employment Characteristics of Biomedical Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973–2001   1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 Total employed in S&E 34,367 39,661 43,411 48,591 53,357 56,481 61,810 65,800   100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minority 797 1,066 1,149 1,259 1,566 1,516 1,819 1,906   2.3% 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.9% 2.7% 2.9% 2.9% Citizens and permanent residents 32,610 37,958 41,421 46,131 52,492 55,898 61,128 65,120   94.9% 95.7% 95.4% 94.9% 98.4% 99.0% 98.9% 99.0% Temporary residents 793 777 1,055 1,645 503 331 473 581   2.3% 2.0% 2.4% 3.4% 0.9% 0.6% 0.8% 0.9% Total academics 23,423 27,219 29,889 33,188 36,165 36,797 39,307 41,027   68.2% 68.6% 68.9% 68.3% 67.8% 65.1% 63.6% 62.4% Faculty with rank appointments 20,138 22,230 23,515 26,064 27,868 28,510 30,454 31,280   58.6% 56.1% 54.2% 53.6% 52.2% 50.5% 49.3% 47.5% Tenured faculty 4,567 13,376 14,345 15,636 17,836 18,884 20,114 19,157   13.3% 33.7% 33.0% 32.2% 33.4% 33.4% 32.5% 29.1% Tenure-track faculty (not tenured) 15,571 8,854 9,170 5,952 6,446 5,673 6,644 6,149   45.3% 22.3% 21.1% 12.2% 12.1% 10.0% 10.7% 9.3% Academic postdoctorates 1,713 2,615 3,507 4,358 4,722 4,405 4,450 4,784   5.0% 6.6% 8.1% 9.0% 8.8% 7.8% 7.2% 7.3% Other academic appointments 1,572 1,706 1,810 3,092 3,575 3,882 4,403 4,963   4.6% 4.3% 4.2% 6.4% 6.7% 6.9% 7.1% 7.5% Industry (nonpostdoctorate) 4,470 5,273 5,543 6,286 7,881 9,589 11,841 13,366   1.3% 13.3% 12.8% 12.9% 14.8% 17.0% 19.2% 20.3% Industrial postdoctorates 27 53 40 27 70 46 126 222   0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% Government (nonpostdoctorate) 3,675 3,785 3,914 4,449 4,545 4,843 5,026 5,725   10.7% 9.5% 9.0% 9.2% 8.5% 8.6% 8.1% 8.7% Government postdoctorates 156 245 336 327 286 444 373 529   0.5% 0.6% 0.8% 0.7% 0.5% 0.8% 0.6% 0.8% Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate) 2,303 2,624 3,029 3,551 3,778 3,909 4,082 4,199   6.7% 6.6% 7.0% 7.3% 7.1% 6.9% 6.6% 6.4% Other-sector postdoctorates 236 431 407 552 525 748 961 648   0.7% 1.1% 0.9% 1.1% 1.0% 1.3% 1.6% 1.0% Doctorates with federal research support 19,841 22,152 23,884 26,183 26,640 29,439 27,377 38,171   57.7% 55.9% 55.0% 53.9% 49.9% 52.1% 44.3% 58.0%

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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs   1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 Total employed in S&E 70,593 71,962 76,449 79,077 88,481 95,780 100,224   100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minority 2,217 2,727 2,840 3,150 3,758 4,385 5,345   3.1% 3.8% 3.7% 4.0% 4.2% 4.6% 5.3% Citizens and permanent residents 69,709 70,834 75,023 77,826 87,105 93,100 97,126   98.7% 98.4% 98.1% 98.4% 98.4% 97.2% 96.9% Temporary residents 884 945 1,410 1,251 1,376 2,680 3,098   1.3% 1.3% 1.8% 1.6% 1.6% 2.8% 3.1% Total academics 43,572 40,581 45,258 48,622 53,026 55,682 57,227   61.7% 56.4% 59.2% 61.5% 59.9% 58.1% 57.1% Faculty with rank appointments 31,862 28,672 32,180 33,496 36,122 36,987 38,299   45.1% 39.8% 42.1% 42.4% 40.8% 38.6% 38.2% Tenured faculty 19,755 17,106 19,070 19,516 20,326 21,535 21,695   28.0% 23.8% 24.9% 24.7% 23.0% 22.5% 21.6% Tenure-track faculty (not tenured) 5,872 7,556 7,722 8,259 8,974 8,909 8,784   8.3% 10.5% 10.1% 10.4% 10.1% 9.3% 8.8% Academic postdoctorates 5,993 4,819 6,431 7,701 9,620 10,145 9,692   8.5% 6.7% 8.4% 9.7% 10.9% 10.6% 9.7% Other academic appointments 5,717 7,090 6,647 7,436 7,296 8,550 9,236   8.1% 9.9% 8.7% 9.4% 8.2% 8.9% 9.2% Industry (nonpostdoctorate) 15,376 18,309 19,538 18,949 21,643 26,216 28,935   21.8% 25.4% 25.6% 24.0% 24.5% 27.4% 28.9% Industrial postdoctorates 206 204 376 531 561 591 293   0.3% 0.3% 0.5% 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% 0.3% Government (nonpostdoctorate) 5,776 6,157 6,143 6,074 7,212 7,240 7,886   8.2% 8.6% 8.0% 7.7% 8.2% 7.6% 7.9% Government postdoctorates 514 432 1057 1111 1437 1180 1050   0.7% 0.6% 1.4% 1.4% 1.6% 1.2% 1.1% Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate) 4,363 5,303 3,356 3,028 3,728 4,005 4,213   6.2% 7.4% 4.4% 3.8% 4.2% 4.2% 4.2% Other-sector postdoctorates 671 681 721 762 874 866 620   1.0% 0.9% 0.9% 1.0% 1.0% 0.9% 0.6% Doctorates with federal research support 40,655 38,490 29,261 31,513 34,678 41,707 42,012   57.6% 53.5% 38.3% 39.9% 39.2% 43.5% 41.9%

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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs TABLE E-3 Characteristics of Doctorates in the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 1973–2003   1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Total doctorates 2,683 3,094 3,220 3,433 3,661 3,835 4,047 4,098 4,082 4,120 Males 2,079 2,352 2,391 2,452 2,549 2,611 2,733 2,634 2,554 2,445 Females 604 742 829 981 1,112 1,224 1,314 1,464 1,528 1,675 Citizens 2,458 2,812 2,928 3,128 3,231 3,461 3,722 3,724 3,676 3,728 Permanent residents 78 88 96 89 85 92 85 92 95 92 Temporary residents 121 150 140 157 165 214 183 167 152 161 Unknown 26 44 56 59 180 68 57 115 159 139 Minorities 0 3 11 84 115 172 202 234 235 266 Postdoctoral training   Postdoctoral fellowship 194 188 189 196 193 227 298 322 349 336 Postdoctoral research 59 67 67 84 84 106 100 114 120 127 Postdoctoral traineeship 22 43 36 35 49 58 51 75 98 78 Other training 21 40 37 52 64 61 85 74 72 63 Total postdoctorates 296 338 329 367 390 452 534 585 639 604 Percent planning 11% 11% 10% 11% 11% 12% 13% 14% 16% 15% Employment 2,242 2,526 2,590 2,809 2,882 3,095 3,209 3,147 3,014 3,179 Other 49 70 87 68 80 68 83 66 75 53 Ph.D. with plans 2,587 2,934 3,006 3,244 3,352 3,615 3,826 3,798 3,728 3,836 Time to degree 6 6 6 6.17 6.25 6.25 6.33 6.59 6.83 7 Registered time to degree 5.59 5.5 5.58 5.67 5.67 5.75 5.92 5.96 6 6.25 Age at time of degree 29.66 29.58 29.75 30.08 30.08 30.25 30.25 30.58 30.59 31.16   1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Total doctorates 3,988 3,844 3,975 4,064 4,087 4,080 4,289 4,185 4,162 4,224 Males 1,912 1,749 1,796 1,745 1,624 1,745 1,720 1,671 1,606 1,555 Females 2,076 2,095 2,179 2,319 2,463 2,335 2,569 2,514 2,556 2,669 Citizens 3,352 3,232 3,221 3,497 3,560 3,490 3,702 3,623 3,587 3,644 Permanent residents 111 107 95 107 124 132 146 155 177 170 Temporary residents 180 194 244 267 296 334 329 311 303 307 Unknown 345 312 415 193 112 133 123 104 101 111 Minorities 255 266 267 320 339 321 349 340 394 419 Postdoctoral training   Postdoctoral fellowship 413 414 432 480 568 585 684 676 725 700 Postdoctoral research 174 173 124 149 155 150 170 187 195 193 Postdoctoral traineeship 65 75 88 104 75 92 77 87 91 86 Other training 64 53 59 51 51 53 75 58 55 84 Total postdoctorates 716 715 703 784 849 880 1,006 1,008 1,066 1,063 Percent planning 18% 19% 18% 19% 21% 22% 24% 24% 26% 25% Employment 2,785 2,688 2,720 2,842 2,834 2,784 2,888 2,780 2,646 2,675 Other 54 50 55 65 49 62 69 62 77 83 Ph.D. with plans 3,555 3,453 3,478 3,691 3,732 3,726 3,963 3,850 3,789 3,821 Time to degree 8.67 8.92 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.09 9.00 8.91 8.92 8.75 Registered time to degree 7.33 7.58 7.59 7.75 7.67 7.59 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.50 Age at time of degree 33.75 34.33 34.33 34.42 34.66 34.67 34.58 34.17 34.25 33.83

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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 4,015 4,339 4,023 4,263 4,141 3,964 3,979 2,315 2,461 2,240 2,265 2,087 1,993 1,962 1,700 1,878 1,783 1,998 2,054 1,971 2,017 3,630 3,935 3,600 3,799 3,662 3,487 3,426 98 85 82 90 75 91 108 152 173 151 182 190 179 185 135 146 190 192 214 207 260 244 256 269 271 272 261 278 380 389 339 403 396 427 438 118 146 134 132 135 133 139 91 104 95 104 109 97 101 61 76 56 69 59 49 63 650 715 624 708 699 706 741 16% 17% 16% 17% 17% 18% 19% 3,068 3,311 3,063 3,191 3,096 2,910 2,837 55 65 60 60 42 55 54 3,773 4,091 3,747 3,959 3,837 3,671 3,632 7.25 7.5 7.92 8 8.17 8.5 8.59 6.42 6.59 6.91 7 7.16 7.25 7.25 31.33 31.92 32.08 32.5 32.75 33.08 33.58 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 4,371 4,481 4,466 4,507 4,230 4,064 4,139 1,565 1,595 1,596 1,595 1,475 1,411 1,411 2,806 2,886 2,870 2,908 2,751 2,649 2,724 3,608 3,757 3,797 3,821 3,548 3,400 3,426 151 142 119 135 114 113 97 292 315 265 310 276 265 323 360 285 301 241 292 286 293 428 494 534 545 537 544 553 713 860 912 919 903 895 942 192 211 197 203 234 199 228 61 74 56 81 71 71 70 22 30 97 57 61 53 72 988 1,175 1,262 1,260 1,269 1,218 1,312 23% 26% 28% 28% 30% 30% 37% 2,564 2,488 2,511 2,632 2,408 2,334 2,212 112 114 75 115 93 80 71 3,664 3,777 3,848 4,007 3,770 3,632 3,595 8.96 8.92 8.91 8.75 8.91 9.00 9.00 7.50 7.50 7.41 7.50 7.59 7.59 7.59 33.42 33.24 33 32.84 32.75 32.75 32.82

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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs TABLE E-4 Employment Characteristics of Behavioral and Social Sciences Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973–2001   1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 Total employed in S&E 74,570 34,360 39,237 45,532 51,743 58,458 64,616 68852   100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minority 520 842 1,066 1,517 2,059 2,546 2,897 3166   0.7% 2.5% 2.7% 3.3% 4.0% 4.4% 4.5% 4.6% Citizens and permanent residents 26,998 33,978 38,912 44,863 51,490 58,129 64,400 68761   36.2% 98.9% 99.2% 98.5% 99.5% 99.4% 99.7% 99.9% Temporary residents 107 172 122 369 168 247 156 59   0.1% 0.5% 0.3% 0.8% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% 0.1% Total academics 18178 22333 24287 26972 29995 32267 34985 34911   24.4% 65.0% 61.9% 59.2% 58.0% 55.2% 54.1% 50.7% Faculty with rank appointments 17,095 19,917 21,383 23,888 25,364 27,442 29,079 28678   22.9% 58.0% 54.5% 52.5% 49.0% 46.9% 4.5% 41.7% Tenured faculty 3,560 11,606 13,139 14,812 16,982 19,302 19,833 18761   4.8% 33.8% 33.5% 32.5% 32.8% 33.0% 30.7% 27.2% Tenure-track faculty (not tenured) 13,535 8,311 8,244 5,336 5,204 4,963 5,623 4989   18.2% 24.2% 21.0% 11.7% 10.1% 8.5% 8.7% 7.2% Academic postdoctorates 205 481 594 836 775 798 901 664   0.3% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 1.5% 1.4% 1.4% 1.0% Other academic appointments 878 915 1,070 3,141 3,856 4,027 5,005 5569   1.2% 2.7% 2.7% 6.9% 7.5% 6.9% 7.7% 8.1% Industry (nonpostdoctorate) 2,682 3,666 4,883 6,695 9,357 12,891 15,469 17621   3.6% 10.7% 12.4% 14.7% 18.1% 22.1% 23.9% 25.6% Industrial postdoctorates 0 0 4 0 0 4 80 14   0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% Government (nonpostdoctorate) 2,680 2,603 3,216 3,718 3,938 4,627 4,632 5390   3.6% 7.6% 8.2% 8.2% 7.6% 7.9% 7.2% 7.8% Government postdoctorates 22 15 53 49 88 85 22 51   0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.0% 0.1% Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate) 3,647 5,609 6,431 7,600 8,134 8,299 9,205 10561   4.9% 16.3% 16.4% 16.7% 15.7% 14.2% 14.2% 15.3% Other-sector postdoctorates 113 91 151 180 125 201 177 158   0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% Doctorates with federal research support 10,881 12,965 13,790 15,213 15,689 16,648 13,651 21864   14.6% 37.7% 35.1% 33.4% 30.3% 28.5% 21.1% 31.8%

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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs   1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 Total employed in S&E 74,570 75,420 81,126 84,408 91,662 95,909 99,154   100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minority 3,713 4,542 4,943 5,609 6,482 7,045 8,534   5.0% 6.0% 6.1% 6.6% 7.1% 7.3% 8.6% Citizens and permanent residents 74,348 75,178 80,894 84,200 91,333 95,531 98,725   99.7% 99.7% 99.7% 99.8% 99.6% 99.6% 99.6% Temporary residents 194 164 190 195 329 378 429   0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% Total academics 36961 33280 37617 39905 43736 45402 47206   49.6% 44.1% 46.4% 47.3% 47.7% 47.3% 47.6% Faculty with rank appointments 30,239 26,852 29,402 30,787 32,941 33,837 34,491   40.6% 35.6% 36.2% 36.5% 35.9% 35.3% 34.8% Tenured faculty 20,041 18,201 19,858 20,720 22,266 22,032 22,196   26.9% 24.1% 24.5% 24.5% 24.3% 23.0% 22.4% Tenure-track faculty (not tenured) 5,379 5,400 5,956 5,991 6,032 6,364 6,510   7.2% 7.2% 7.3% 7.1% 6.6% 6.6% 6.6% Academic postdoctorates 993 416 534 1,329 1,641 1,458 1,543   1.3% 0.6% 0.7% 1.6% 1.8% 1.5% 1.6% Other academic appointments 5,729 6,012 7,681 7,789 9,154 10,136 11,194   7.7% 8.0% 9.5% 9.2% 10.0% 10.6% 11.3% Industry (nonpostdoctorate) 19,998 23,995 27,236 27,348 28,735 31,318 32,561   26.8% 31.8% 33.6% 32.4% 31.3% 32.7% 32.8% Industrial postdoctorates 5 20 50 151 462 211 201   0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% Government (nonpostdoctorate) 5,557 5,565 8,867 9,310 9,692 9,696 9,877   7.5% 7.4% 10.9% 11.0% 10.6% 10.1% 10.0% Government postdoctorates 11 84 147 176 267 210 165   0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate) 11,697 11,865 7,129 7,423 8,557 8,804 8,960   15.7% 15.7% 8.8% 8.8% 9.3% 9.2% 9.0% Other-sector postdoctorates 166 66 80 95 213 268 184   0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% Doctorates with federal research support 23,831 20,902 12,686 15,385 16,308 20,487 22,549   32.0% 27.7% 15.6% 18.2% 17.8% 21.4% 22.7%

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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs TABLE E-5 Characteristics of Doctorates in the Clinical Sciences, 1973–2003   1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Total doctorates 273 329 306 323 339 340 357 385 387 432 Males 218 271 245 249 252 233 248 266 256 271 Females 55 58 61 74 87 107 109 119 131 161 Citizens 210 263 219 250 239 258 273 296 305 339 Permanent residents 19 20 40 34 37 35 32 41 26 39 Temporary residents 37 30 29 31 33 35 40 42 38 37 Unknown 7 16 18 8 30 12 12 6 18 17 Minorities 0 3 0 8 11 12 14 22 15 22 Postdoctoral training   Postdoctoral fellowship 22 21 37 27 16 29 39 44 31 50 Postdoctoral research 7 7 17 19 26 13 16 24 21 24 Postdoctoral traineeship 2 3 3 . 1 1 2 3 3 3 Other training 7 5 9 12 7 6 7 7 7 14 Total postdoctoral 38 36 66 58 50 49 64 78 62 91 Percent planning 14% 11% 22% 18% 15% 14% 18% 20% 16% 21% Employment 201 247 200 225 224 255 264 269 285 297 Other 6 9 8 10 10 7 8 7 4 12 Ph.D. with plans 245 292 274 293 284 311 336 354 351 400 Time to degree 6.59 6.21 6.42 6.34 6.75 7 6.63 6.5 7.09 6.92 Registered time to degree 5.25 5.75 5.42 5.59 5.83 5.92 5.75 5.8 6 6.08 Age at time of degree 31.21 29.96 30.33 30.59 30.67 31.83 31.58 30.75 31.67 31.75   1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Total doctorates 699 788 881 840 950 1022 1100 1208 1225 1237 Males 290 302 313 322 333 363 396 420 456 435 Females 409 486 568 518 617 659 704 788 769 802 Citizens 527 573 656 630 706 739 803 897 857 865 Permanent residents 33 38 29 34 58 48 63 91 102 87 Temporary residents 84 108 118 145 161 213 202 214 236 253 Unknown 55 69 78 31 29 30 44 15 41 41 Minorities 38 50 38 41 56 49 79 70 90 83 Postdoctoral training   Postdoctoral fellowship 64 71 60 85 79 111 107 156 138 136 Postdoctoral research 27 39 38 51 40 44 50 43 70 70 Postdoctoral traineeship 4 9 6 12 5 12 9 11 11 7 Other training 14 14 12 17 17 25 19 16 17 26 Total postdoctoral 109 133 116 165 141 192 185 226 236 239 Percent planning 16% 17% 13% 20% 15% 19% 17% 19% 19% 19% Employment 506 561 659 589 725 746 820 840 850 855 Other 16 14 11 14 16 12 14 15 23 30 Ph.D. with plans 631 708 786 768 882 950 1019 1081 1109 1124 Time to degree 9.00 9.00 9.08 9.59 9.17 9.92 9.63 9.50 9.91 9.75 Registered time to degree 7.00 7.00 7.17 7.25 7.25 7.33 7.75 7.42 7.50 7.63 Age at time of degree 35.92 36.42 36.75 37.17 37.83 37.75 38.42 37.79 38.08 38.46

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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 464 524 575 526 621 619 677 273 303 319 249 262 244 259 191 221 256 277 359 375 418 370 429 457 401 492 458 489 32 33 33 30 36 32 30 53 48 64 70 66 85 93 9 14 21 25 27 44 65 14 19 30 23 34 31 32 58 45 54 37 64 55 48 27 30 29 21 22 29 38 4 5 6 3 6 2 7 16 19 7 8 12 3 16 105 99 96 69 104 89 109 23% 19% 17% 13% 17% 14% 16% 332 388 435 398 465 461 478 6 10 14 15 10 6 9 443 497 545 482 579 556 596 7.17 7.67 7.5 7.92 8.17 8.83 8.91 6 6.29 6.17 6.59 6.75 6.87 7.00 32 32.37 32.87 34.08 34.33 35.58 35.92 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 1354 1425 1338 1527 1558 1579 1574 469 474 480 518 566 510 528 885 951 858 1007 981 1069 1039 911 1003 925 1070 1036 1058 1115 77 85 81 74 76 63 60 256 266 250 275 293 300 299 126 77 92 108 153 158 100 85 97 105 116 112 106 137 131 145 137 139 190 201 219 75 66 70 65 85 74 90 10 10 18 14 11 12 24 9 9 38 26 21 16 36 225 230 263 244 307 303 369 17% 16% 20% 16% 20% 19% 26% 910 943 906 1095 1017 1024 1019 30 48 24 37 26 49 38 1165 1221 1193 1376 1350 1376 1426 10.09 10.50 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.75 10.00 7.92 8.00 7.75 7.92 7.59 8.00 7.92 38.58 38.25 37.24 38.33 36.92 38.17 37.08

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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs TABLE E-6 Employment Characteristics of Clinical Sciences Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973–2001   1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 Total employed in S&E 2,682 3,475 3,748 4,489 5,312 6,003 7,188 7,669   100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minority 95 132 146 183 198 250 273 342   3.5% 3.8% 3.9% 4.1% 3.7% 4.2% 3.8% 4.5% Citizens and permanent residents 2,522 3,320 3,585 4,266 5,261 5,986 7,106 7,614   94.0% 95.5% 95.7% 95.0% 99.0% 99.7% 98.9% 99.3% Temporary residents 69 83 86 133 44 8 79 55   2.6% 2.4% 2.3% 3.0% 0.8% 0.1% 1.1% 0.7% Total academics 1,478 1,856 2,064 2,564 2,963 3,225 3,938 4,164   55.1% 53.4% 55.1% 57.1% 55.8% 53.7% 54.8% 54.3% Faculty with rank appointments 1,359 1,615 1,774 2,259 2,642 2,922 3,413 3,675   50.7% 46.5% 47.3% 50.3% 49.7% 48.7% 47.5% 47.9% Tenured faculty 276 931 1,031 1,271 1,424 1,516 1,968 1,960   10.3% 26.8% 27.5% 28.3% 26.8% 25.3% 27.4% 25.6% Tenure-track faculty (not tenured) 1,083 684 743 565 780 921 1,002 931   40.4% 19.7% 19.8% 12.6% 14.7% 15.3% 13.9% 12.1% Academic postdoctorates 40 107 108 105 139 100 177 90   1.5% 3.1% 2.9% 2.3% 2.6% 1.7% 2.5% 1.2% Other academic appointments 79 78 104 231 182 203 348 399   2.9% 2.2% 2.8% 5.1% 3.4% 3.4% 4.8% 5.2% Industry (nonpostdoctorate) 536 739 733 992 1,259 1,485 1,793 1,940   20.0% 21.3% 19.6% 22.1% 23.7% 24.7% 24.9% 25.3% Industrial postdoctorates 0 0 0 0 0 8 5 14   0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% Government (nonpostdoctorate) 383 491 462 446 527 585 689 745   14.3% 14.1% 12.3% 9.9% 9.9% 9.7% 9.6% 9.7% Government postdoctorates 5 9 8 11 35 34 14 8   0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.7% 0.6% 0.2% 0.1% Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate) 257 358 437 422 489 585 724 747   9.6% 10.3% 11.7% 9.4% 9.2% 9.7% 10.1% 9.7% Other-sector postdoctorates 23 22 18 14 12 60 25 13   0.9% 0.6% 0.5% 0.3% 0.2% 1.0% 0.3% 0.2% Doctorates with federal research support 1,416 1,804 1,836 2,041 2,179 2,416 2,307 3,272   52.8% 51.9% 49.0% 45.5% 41.0% 40.2% 32.1% 42.7%

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Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs   1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 Total employed in S&E 8,736 9,506 10,748 11,996 14,069 15,268 17,180   100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minority 533 574 760 899 1,092 1,347 1,497   6.1% 6.0% 7.1% 7.5% 7.8% 8.8% 8.7% Citizens and permanent residents 8,669 9,422 10,573 11,938 13,875 14,933 16,822   99.2% 99.1% 98.4% 99.5% 98.6% 97.8% 97.9% Temporary residents 53 84 175 58 194 335 358   0.6% 0.9% 1.6% 0.5% 1.4% 2.2% 2.1% Total academics 4,600 5,065 5,827 6,684 7,609 8,855 9,730   52.7% 53.3% 54.2% 55.7% 54.1% 58.0% 56.6% Faculty with rank appointments 4,046 4,402 5,084 5,705 6,325 7,374 8,124   46.3% 46.3% 47.3% 47.6% 45.0% 48.3% 47.3% Tenured faculty 1,925 2,156 2,341 2,770 3,081 3,507 3,647   22.0% 22.7% 21.8% 23.1% 21.9% 23.0% 21.2% Tenure-track faculty (not tenured) 1,424 1,339 1,784 1,988 1,878 2,138 2,384   16.3% 14.1% 16.6% 16.6% 13.3% 1.4% 13.9% Academic postdoctorates 99 169 144 342 416 324 321   1.1% 1.8% 1.3% 2.9% 3.0% 2.1% 1.9% Other academic appointments 455 494 599 637 868 1,157 1,285   5.2% 5.2% 5.6% 5.3% 6.2% 7.6% 7.5% Industry (nonpostdoctorate) 2,341 2,530 2,869 2,923 3,568 3,731 4,413   26.8% 26.6% 26.7% 24.4% 25.4% 24.4% 25.7% Industrial postdoctorates 3 4 4 17 49 10 21   0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% Government (nonpostdoctorate) 1,034 946 1,144 1,309 1,467 1,250 1,604   11.8% 10.0% 10.6% 10.9% 10.4% 8.2% 9.3% Government postdoctorates 18 0 67 101 47 50 30   0.2% 0.0% 0.6% 0.8% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate) 717 890 816 936 1,311 1,349 1,339   8.2% 9.4% 7.6% 7.8% 9.3% 8.8% 7.8% Other-sector postdoctorates 8 10 21 26 18 23 43   0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% Doctorates with federal research support 3,896 4,125 3,016 3,323 3,849 5,172 5,822   44.6% 43.4% 28.1% 27.7% 27.4% 33.9% 33.9%

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