A program should be established to examine and archive fallout-related documents from sites operated by the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense and other relevant sites.
An NCI and CDC working group (NCI-CDC, 2003) reviewed and revised the 1985 National Institutes of Health radio-epidemiology tables (NIH, 1985). The revision was principally based on the 1958–1987 Life Span Study Tumor Registry data on the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The computer program Interactive Radio-Epidemiological Program (IREP, version 5.3) incorporated the results of this work to give probability of causation/assigned share values for individual radiation exposures.
Risk coefficients and associated PC/AS values in some cases have been substantially changed, both from the original NIH tables and from their 1988 revision by the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) (CIRRPC, 1988). The NCI-CDC report used cancer-incidence data on the atomic-bomb survivors, rather than the cancer mortality data on most cancers used for the 1985 report. For thyroid cancer, the NCI-CDC report used a compilation of seven studies (Ron et al., 1995), which was considerably more extensive than that used by the NIH report.
CIRRPC also assumed that, for a particular cancer, an applicant had a low baseline risk at the 10th percentile of the cancer risk distribution and that the ERR varied inversely with the baseline risk. The NCI-CDC revision did not use those assumptions, which had accounted for a factor of two increase in the ERR for most cancers (NCI-CDC, 2003).
This chapter has presented the results of recent studies in radiation epidemiology, biology, and dosimetry. The overall aim is to develop a database that forms part of the consideration of new populations or geographic areas for coverage by RECA. Chapters 5 and 6 consider the issue of additions to RECA.