aFor discussion of important issues regarding differences between the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and dietary intake data in the units used for vitamin E and folate, please see the section Data Set—Nutrients Examined in Appendix A—Nutrient Intake of WIC Subgroups.
bValues are for children ages 2–3.9 y and children age 4 y, respectively.
cMean EER (kcal/d) (Table B-5B) was calculated based on CSFII data (FSRG, 2000) using the method described in the DRI report (IOM, 2002/2005). For additional detail, see Appendix C—Nutrient Intakes of WIC Subgroups.
dTrans fatty acids have not specifically been identified as a hazard for infants and children, and thus are shown in Table 2-10 (Chapter 2—Nutrient and Food Priorities) as nutrients to limit only in the diets of adolescents and adults (IOM, 2002/2005). However, the current dietary guidance to limit trans fatty acids from processed foods in the diet is presumed to apply to all individuals regardless of age. The term trans fatty acids refers to unsaturated fatty acids that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration.
eAdded sugars were identified as an ingredient to limit in the diet for women and children over the age of 2 y; however, the committee did not include added sugars in the nutrient analyses because the databases used did not list added sugars as a separate component of foods.
DATA SOURCES: EARs, AIs, and RDAs (Table B-5A) are from the DRI reports (IOM, 1997, 1998, 2000b, 2001, 2002/2005, 2005a). ULs and AMDRs (Table B-5B) are from the DRI reports (IOM, 2001, 2002/2005, 2005a). The dietary guidance in Table B-5C is from the American Heart Association (AHA, 2004) and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 (DHHS/USDA, 2005). Nutrients offered were calculated using data from the Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, using Nutrition Data System for Research software (NDS-R version 5.0/35, 2004) (Schakel et al., 1988, 1997; Schakel, 2001). The assumptions used for the calculations of nutrient content of the current and revised food packages are detailed in Appendix D—Cost Calculations.