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WIC Food Packages: Time for a Change
TABLE C-1 Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
Range (percentage of food energy intake)
Children, 1–3 y
Children, 4 y
Women, 13–44 y
DATA SOURCE: DRI report (IOM, 2002/2005).
For macronutrients, a somewhat different set of DRIs has been developed (IOM, 2002/2005). In the case of food energy, dietary requirements are expressed in terms of Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs). An adult EER is defined as the dietary energy intake needed to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a given age, gender, body weight, height, and level of physical activity. In children, the EER is defined as the sum of the dietary energy intake predicted to maintain energy balance for an individual’s age, body weight, height, and activity level, plus an allowance for normal growth and development. For fat, protein, and carbohydrate, the DRIs include Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) for intakes as a percentage of energy intakes (Table C-1). Tables F-1C and F-1D in Appendix F—Supplementary Information—present the DRIs for macronutrients and subcategories (e.g., saturated fat) examined in the assessment of the diets of WIC-eligible population subgroups.
In addition to micronutrients and macronutrients, other nutrients and dietary components have DRIs. Potassium and fiber have AIs, and sodium has an AI for infants under 1 year of age and a UL for children and older adults. Current dietary guidance is that the percentage of food energy intake from added sugars not exceed 25 percent (IOM, 2002/2005). The Dietary Guidelines recommend food energy intake from saturated fat not exceed 10 percent and that the daily intake of cholesterol not exceed 300 milligrams (DHHS/USDA, 2005).
USING THE DRIS TO ASSESS NUTRIENT ADEQUACY
To assess the nutrient adequacy of WIC-eligible subgroups, three questions are important.
What are the characteristics of the usual nutrient intake distributions?