a The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for protein include an AI of 1.52 g/kg body weight/d for infants age 0 through 5 months and EARs of 1.2 g/kg body weight/d for infants age 6 through 11 months, 0.87 g/kg body weight/d for children ages 1 through 3 years, 0.76 g/kg body weight/d for children ages 4 through 8 years, 0.71 g/kg body weight/d for adolescent women (nonpregnant, nonlactating) ages 14 through 18 years, and 0.66 g/kg body weight/d for adult women (nonpregnant, nonlactating) ages 19 through 50 years. The EAR for protein intake per day is 0.88 g/kg body weight plus 21 g for pregnant women of all age groups and 1.05 g/kg body weight plus 21.2 g for lactating women of all age groups (IOM, 2002/2005).

b The DRI reports establish some dietary guidance for macronutrient intake beyond the AMDR. Part of this dietary guidance is that added sugars be limited to no more than 25% of total energy intake (IOM, 2002/2005).

c The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that whole milk, rather than reduced fat milk, be consumed by children ages 13 through 23 mo (AAP, 2004). Dietary guidance from AAP to avoid atherogenic diets during childhood were applied to children 2 years of age and older (AAP, 1992b, 1998). The AAP recommendations, when taken out of context, might be interpreted that there should be no restriction of fat intake for children age 1 y. However, the AAP recommendation is not in conflict with the DRI reports that recommend a transitioning of dietary fat from the high fat diet of infancy (55% of energy from fat for ages 0 through 5 mo; 40% of energy from fat for ages 6 through 11 mo) to the moderate fat diet of childhood (25 to 35% of energy from fat) (IOM, 2002/2005). Thus it is appropriate to follow the AMDR recommendations for dietary fat to contribute 30 to 40% of food energy intake for children ages 13 through 23 mo (IOM, 2002/2005).

NOTES FOR TABLE F-3: AI = Adequate Intake, used when necessary, indicated by an asterisk (*); AMDR = Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range, indicated by a dagger (†); EAR = Estimated Average Requirement, used when available; EER = Estimated Energy Requirement; F = female; kcal = kilocalories; M = male; ND = not determined; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. An AMDR for total fat has not been set for infants; however, the AIs for total fat (indicated by an asterisk (*) represent a high fat diet as indicated by the usual intake of total fat as the percentage of food energy intake for breast-fed infants (indicated by a double dagger [‡]).

DATA SOURCES: The American Heart Association (Krauss et al., 1996; AHA, 2004); and the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002/2005) (see IOM, 2005b).



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