trans configuration (that is, with carbon atoms on opposite sides of the longitudinal axis of the double bond).
fThe dietary guidance for cholesterol presented in Table F-1D is from the American Heart Association (Krauss et al., 1996; AHA, 2004) and the Dietary Guidelines (USDA/DHHS, 2000; DHHS/USDA, 2005). The dietary guidance for cholesterol from the DRI report is to consume an amount as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet (IOM, 2002/2005).
gThe American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that whole milk, rather than reduced fat milk, be consumed by children ages 13 through 23 mo (AAP, 2004). Dietary guidance from AAP to avoid atherogenic diets during childhood were applied to children 2 years of age and older (AAP, 1992b, 1998). The AAP recommendations, when taken out of context, might be interpreted that there should be no restriction of fat intake for children age 1 y. However, the AAP recommendation is not in conflict with the DRI reports that recommend a transitioning of dietary fat from the high fat diet of infancy (55% of energy from fat for ages 0 through 5 mo; 40% of energy from fat for ages 6 through 11 mo) to the moderate fat diet of childhood (25 to 35% of energy from fat) (IOM, 2002/2005). Thus it is appropriate to follow the AMDR recommendations for dietary fat to contribute 30 to 40% of food energy intake for children ages 13 through 23 mo (IOM, 2002/2005).
NOTES FOR TABLE F-4: AI = Adequate Intake, used when necessary, indicated by an asterisk (*); AMDR = Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range, indicated by a dagger (†); ND = not determined; UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level. An AMDR for total fat has not been set for infants; however, the AIs for total fat (indicated by an asterisk [*]) represent a high fat diet as indicated by the usual intake of total fat as the percentage of food energy intake for breast-fed infants (indicated by a double dagger [‡]).
DATA SOURCES: The American Heart Association (Krauss et al., 1996; AHA, 2004); and the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002/2005) (see IOM, 2005b).