ences would imply larger body weight gains than have been observed among infants and children, suggesting overreporting of food intakes for infants and children (see section on Discussion of Results).

In contrast, reported intakes of food energy were less than the EER for pregnant, lactating, and non-breastfeeding postpartum women (Table 2-4). Mean reported food energy intake was 350 kilocalories per day less than the mean EER for pregnant and lactating women and 389 kilocalories per day less than the mean EER for non-breastfeeding postpartum women suggesting underreporting of food intakes for these subgroups (see section on Discussion of Results).

Usual Intakes of Macronutrients and Added Sugars

Many WIC children have reported usual fat intakes outside the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) (Table 2-5). Interestingly, more WIC children were below the lower bound of the AMDR for total fat than were above the upper bound (21 percent below and 5 percent above for WIC children 1 year of age; 18 percent below and 10 percent above for WIC children 2 through 4 years of age). This suggests that excessive intake of total fat is not a concern in children. Saturated fat, however, is a nutrient of concern with regard to excessive intake; 91 percent of WIC children ages 2 through 4 years had saturated fat intakes above the recommended range of less than 10 percent of total food energy (Table 2-5). The estimate of the percentage of WIC children with intakes of added sugars exceeding 25 percent of food energy (the upper bound set in the DRI reports [IOM, 2002/2005]) was about 3 percent (Table 2-5). However, it is difficult to plan diets that provide recommended amounts of nutrients when added sugars provide such a high percentage of total calories (DHHS/USDA, 2004). (See also discussion of added sugars in the section on Food Priorities).

Approximately 7 percent of pregnant and lactating women and 20 percent of non-breastfeeding postpartum women had intakes of added sugars greater than 25 percent of total food energy intake (Table 2-5). A substantial proportion of pregnant and lactating women had usual fat intakes outside the AMDR. Only a small proportion had usual fat intakes less than the lower bound of the AMDR (20 to 25 percent of food energy intakes), but almost a quarter had usual fat intakes exceeding the upper bound of the AMDR (35 percent of energy intakes) (Table 2-5). Saturated fat is a nutrient of concern with regard to excessive intake; 81 percent of pregnant and lactating women and 96 percent of non-breastfeeding postpartum women (Krauss et al., 1996) did not meet dietary guidance to limit saturated fat intake to less than 10 percent of total food energy intakes (AHA, 2004; DHHS/USDA, 2005).



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