Appendixes



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Effects of Nuclear Earth-Penetrator and Other Weapons Appendixes

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Effects of Nuclear Earth-Penetrator and Other Weapons A Committee and Staff John F. Ahearne (Chair) is the director of the Ethics Program at the Sigma Xi Center for Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society; a lecturer in public policy at Duke University; and an adjunct scholar at Resources for the Future. His professional interests are reactor safety, energy issues, resource allocation, and public policy management. He has served as commissioner and chair of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, system analyst for the White House Energy Office, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy, and Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Defense. Dr. Ahearne currently serves on the Department of Energy’s Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee. In addition, he has been active in several National Research Council (NRC) committees examining issues in risk assessment. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and Society for Risk Analysis, and a member of Sigma Xi, the American Nuclear Society, and the National Academy of Engineering. He received his B.E.P. and M.S. degrees from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University. Lynn R. Anspaugh is a research professor in radiobiology at the University of Utah, where his research interests range from trace elements in human metabolism to reconstruction of radiation doses from early fallout of nuclear weapons tests. Dr. Anspaugh began his career as a National Science Foundation graduate fellow in radiological physics at the University of California, Berkeley, after which he went on to work as a biophysicist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from 1963 to 1996. He served in various capacities while at LLNL; his last position was as director of the Dose Reconstruction Program. In addition to being a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Sigma Xi, and many other professional organizations, Dr. Anspaugh is a fellow of the Health Physics Society. He obtained his Ph.D. degree in biophysics from the University of California, Berkeley. Rodney C. Ewing is the Donald R. Peacor Collegiate Professor in the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Michigan, where he heads a research program on radiation effects and nuclear waste management. He also holds faculty appointments in materials science and engineering and in nuclear engineering and radiological sciences. He is an Emeritus Regents’ Professor at the

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Effects of Nuclear Earth-Penetrator and Other Weapons University of New Mexico in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, where he was a member of the faculty from 1974 to 1997 and chair of the department from 1979 to 1984. Dr. Ewing is a fellow of the Geological Society of America and the Mineralogical Society of America and past president of the International Union of Materials Research Societies and Mineralogical Society of America. He is also an adjunct professor at the University of Aarhus in Denmark. Dr. Ewing’s research interests center on mineralogy and materials science and include the long-term durability of radioactive waste forms. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the NRC Board on Radioactive Waste Management (since 2001). Dr. Ewing received a B.S. in geology from Texas Christian University and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in mineralogy from Stanford University. Steven A. Fetter is a professor in the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland, College Park, where he has taught courses in national security policy, environmental policy, and quantitative analysis since joining the school’s faculty in 1988. He has been a visiting fellow of the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University, the Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University, the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He has also served as a special assistant to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy and was a Council on Foreign Relations fellow in the State Department. Dr. Fetter’s research interests span a wide range of fields, including nuclear weapons, arms control, and nonproliferation policy; nuclear power and the health effects of radiation; and climate change and energy supply. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the NRC Committee on International Security and Arms Control (since 1995) and the Department of Energy’s Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee. Dr. Fetter received an S.B. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in energy and resources from the University of California, Berkeley. Richard L. Garwin is an emeritus fellow at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. From 1994 until March 2004, he was the Phillip D. Reed Senior Fellow for Science and Technology at the Council on Foreign Relations, New York. A member of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine, his expertise in experimental and computational physics includes contributions to nuclear weapons design, instruments and electronics for nuclear and low-temperature physics, computer elements and systems, superconducting devices, communications systems, behavior of solid helium, and detection of gravitational radiation. Dr. Garwin was a member of the President’s Science Advisory Committee from 1962 to 1965 and 1969 to 1972 and a member of the Defense Science Board from 1966 to 1969. He currently is an active member of the JASONs and consults for Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. In 1998, he was a member of the nine-person Rumsfeld Commission—the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States. He has written extensively on nuclear-weapons-related issues over the course of several decades, particularly on the question of maintaining the nuclear stockpile under a comprehensive test ban regime. From 1994 until August 2001, he chaired the State Department’s Arms Control and Nonproliferation Advisory Board. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the American Philosophical Society. He received a B.S. and a D.Sc. from Case Western University and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago.

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Effects of Nuclear Earth-Penetrator and Other Weapons Sydell P. Gold is senior vice president at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), where she is responsible for SAIC’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s (DTRA’s) business activities as DTRA account manager, and for developing new business opportunities for SAIC. Previously, she was also the deputy sector manager, assisting the management of the Advanced Technology and Analysis Sector, a more than $350 million organization with over 2,000 employees, specializing in systems design and engineering and computational and laboratory analysis and research. Prior to joining SAIC in 1992, Dr. Gold served for 10 years with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Acquisition) as Deputy Assistant Secretary (Staff Support and Analysis) (acting) and as Deputy to the Assistant Secretary. Previously, she had served as a member of the professional staff at the National Security Council, as a technical staff member at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory performing analyses of nuclear weapon and related security issues, and at Sandia National Laboratories utilizing applied mathematics and systems analyses for national security and nondefense issues. Dr. Gold received a B.A. from Barnard College of Columbia University, an M.S. from the University of New Mexico, and a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley. Eugene G. Grewis is an independent consultant in areas pertaining to nuclear weapons and related defense activities. He retired from the U.S. civil service in 1994 after 33 years, during which his experience included technical, managerial, and operational efforts with the entire nuclear stockpile as well as selected efforts in chemical and biological defense and other special programs. His career spanned 30 years with the Department of Defense and 3 years with the Department of Energy, progressing from hands-on engineering to senior-level management of weapons programs, interdepartmental liaison, nuclear materials, and defense capabilities in the areas of threat definition, evaluation of systems alternatives, resource planning, safety, system operations, and logistics support. Mr. Grewis has received the Department of Energy Exceptional Service Medal, the Navy Superior Civilian Service Medal, and the Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Medal. He received a B.S. in electrical engineering from Washington University at St. Louis. Theodore M. Hardebeck recently joined Science Applications International Corporation as vice president and director of science, technology, and strategy. He previously served as associate director, concepts and assessments, and as the Commander’s science and technology advisor at the U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). Dr. Hardebeck’s background is in nuclear weapons issues relating to network-centric military planning and analysis. At USSTRATCOM, he led a comprehensive examination of issues involving guidance, target base, weapon requirements, and stability, the results of which provided much of the foundation of the 1991 Presidential Nuclear Initiative. Dr. Hardebeck received a B.S. in mathematics and physics from Ball State University and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in mathematics from Case Western Reserve University. Raymond Jeanloz is a professor of Earth and planetary science and of astronomy at the University of California, Berkeley, and a recently elected member of the National Academy of Sciences. His research interests include the properties of materials at high pressures and temperatures and the nature of planetary interiors. Dr. Jeanloz has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as chair of the NRC Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (from 2000 to 2002) and as a member of the NRC Committee on International Security and Arms Control (since 2002). He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Geophysical Union. Dr. Jeanloz received a B.A. in geology from Amherst College and a Ph.D. in geology and geophysics from the California Institute of Technology.

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Effects of Nuclear Earth-Penetrator and Other Weapons William J. Patterson is an independent consultant in areas relating to the design, development, and testing of nuclear and conventional weaponry. He retired from Sandia National Laboratories in 1996 after more than 35 years of service in lead engineering and management roles. Prior to his retirement, he served as manager of the B61 tactical and strategic bomb stockpile and as special projects manager. In the latter capacity he led conventional and nuclear earth-penetrating weapons design efforts. Mr. Patterson received a B.S. and an M.S. in mechanical engineering from Auburn University and the University of New Mexico, respectively. Gloria S. Patton is currently an independent consultant whose research interests include chemical weapons demilitarization, counterterrorism, and counterproliferation, including areas relating to nuclear, chemical, and biological warfare. From 1999 to 2001, she served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Chemical Demilitarization, having served earlier as Principal Deputy (1998 to 1999) and as senior policy advisor to the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Defense and the Assistant Secretary of Energy for National Security and Nonproliferation (1996 to 1998). In addition, she served as Associate Deputy Assistant Secretary of Technology Development for Environmental Management at the Department of Energy (1990 to 1993), as well as program manager of the Navy Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense Advanced and Full Scale Engineering Development Program (during the 1980s). Dr. Patton is a member of the Endocrine Society, Mayo Clinic Alumni, American Physiological Society, Sigma Xi, the Senior Executive Association, and many other professional organizations. She received an M.S. in biochemistry and a Ph.D. in physiology from the University of Southern California. Heinz W. Schmitt is an independent consultant in areas relating to weapon systems, both of conventional and nuclear origin. He retired from Sandia National Laboratories in 1998, where his last position was Vice President, Weapons Systems. Dr. Schmitt’s career at Sandia spanned a variety of technical interests related to weapons systems, to include quality control, computing, component design, structural and dynamic analysis, and systems evaluation. In 1991 he served as vice president for component development and engineering support, which included oversight in design definition, subsystems development, testing, intelligent systems, robotics, and manufacturing. He is fellow of ASME and a recipient of the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service. Dr. Schmitt received degrees in mechanical engineering, including a B.S. from Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, an M.S. from the University of New Mexico, and a Ph.D. from Oklahoma State University. Eugene Sevin is an independent consultant in areas relating to nuclear and conventional weaponry effects, hardened facility design, and computational structural mechanics. He formerly served with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) as Deputy Director, Space and Missiles Systems and with the Defense Nuclear Agency as Assistant to the Deputy Director (Science and Technology) for Experimental Research. Prior to joining the DOD, he was a professor of mechanical engineering at the Technion, Israel Institute of Technology; head, mechanical engineering at Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel; adjunct professor of applied mechanics at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT); and director of engineering mechanics research at IIT’s Research Institute. Dr. Sevin has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as chair of the committee that produced the 1995 NRC report Protecting Buildings from Bomb Damage. More recently, he served on a peer review group for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, and a Defense Science Board task force on underground facilities. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Sevin received a B.S. in mechanical engineering from IIT, an M.S. in mechanical engineering from the California Institute of Technology, and a Ph.D. in applied mechanics from IIT.

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Effects of Nuclear Earth-Penetrator and Other Weapons C. Bruce Tarter is director emeritus of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, where his research interests include risk assessment, statistical mechanics, atomic physics, high-temperature equations of state and opacities, theoretical astrophysics, and applications to fusion and defense problems. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the Laboratory Operations Board (Secretary of Energy Advisory Board), the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee, and the Council on Foreign Relations. He received an S.B. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Cornell University. Robert H. Wertheim is a retired Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. During his 35-year career in the Navy, Admiral Wertheim served as director of Navy Strategic Systems projects, responsible for the research, development, production, and operational support of the Navy’s submarine-launched ballistic missile systems—Polaris, Poseidon, and Trident. After retirement from the Navy in 1980, he spent 7 years as senior vice president of science and engineering at Lockheed Corporation, and since then has been an independent consultant. Admiral Wertheim has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as a member of the NAS/NRC Committee on International Security and Arms Control (from 1989 to 1997). Today, he serves as a member of the Strategic Advisory Group of the U.S. Strategic Command, Joint Department of Defense/Department of Energy Advisory Committee on Nuclear Weapons Surety, and the University of California President’s National Security Panel. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Admiral Wertheim received a B.S. from the U.S. Naval Academy and an M.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Staff James E. Killian is a senior program officer at the National Research Council’s National Materials Advisory Board and a retired U.S. Navy captain. During his 26-year career in the Navy he served as the commanding officer of an aircraft carrier-based A-7 Corsair II squadron, commanding officer of the Navy’s Nuclear Weapons Evaluation Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and program manager for the Navy’s Theater Nuclear Warfare Program (PMS-423) in Washington, D.C. He has a B.S. from the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, and an M.S. in aeronautical engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.