24.  

L.R. Anspaugh, S.L. Simon, K.I. Gordeev, I.A. Likhtarev, R.M. Maxwell, and S.M. Shinkarev. 2002. “Movement of Radionuclides in Terrestrial Ecosystems by Physical Processes,” Health Phys., Vol. 82, pp. 669-679.

25.  

J.J. Koranda. 1965. Agricultural Factors Affecting the Daily Intake of Fresh Fallout by Dairy Cows, UCRL 12479, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif.

26.  

National Cancer Institute. 1997. Estimated Exposures and Thyroid Doses Received by the American People from Iodine-131 Following Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests: A Report from the National Cancer Institute, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.

27.  

Steven L. Simon, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md., personal communication, 2003.

28.  

Y.C. Ng, L.R. Anspaugh, and R.T. Cederwall. 1990. “ORERP Internal Dose Estimates for Individuals,” Health Phys., Vol. 59, pp. 693-713.

29.  

R.A. Kerber, J.E. Till, S. Simon, J.L. Lyon, D.C. Thomas, S. Preston-Martin, M.L. Rallison, R.D. Lloyd, and W. Stevens. 1993. “A Cohort Study of Thyroid Disease in Relation to Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Testing,” JAMA, Vol. 270, pp. 2076-2082.

30.  

National Cancer Institute. 1997. Estimated Exposures and Thyroid Doses Received by the American People from lodine-131 Following Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests: A Report from the National Cancer Institute, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.

31.  

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 1988, Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR 1988 report to the General Assembly, with annexes, United Nations, New York, Sales No. E.88.IX.7; also, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 2000, Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes, United Nations, New York, Sales No. E.00.IX.4.

32.  

Such values are given in J.S. Puskin and C.B. Nelson, 1995, “Estimates of Radiogenic Cancer Risks,” Health Phys., Vol. 69, pp. 93-101.

33.  

H.M. Clark. 1954. “The Occurrence of an Unusually High-Level Radioactive Rainout in the Area of Troy, N.Y.,” Science, Vol. 119, pp. 619-622.

34.  

J.H. Webb. 1949. “The Fogging of Photographic Film by Radioactive Contaminants in Cardboard Packaging Materials,” Phys. Rev., Vol. 76, pp. 375-380.

35.  

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 1988, Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR 1988 report to the General Assembly, with annexes, United Nations, New York, Sales No. E.88.IX.7; also United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 2000, Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes, United Nations, New York, Sales No. E.00.IX.4.

36.  

L. Machta. 1963. “Meteorological Processes in the Transport of Weapon Radioiodine,” Health Phys., Vol. 9, pp. 1123-1132.

37.  

Steven A. Fetter and Frank von Hippel. 1990. “The Hazard from Plutonium Dispersal by Nuclear-Warhead Accidents,” Science and Global Security, Vol. 2, pp. 21-41.

38.  

For example, see National Research Council, 2002, Making the Nation Safer, National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., p. 49.

39.  

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). 2000. Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes, United Nations, New York, Sales No. E.00.IX.4.

40.  

S. Ichikawa and A.H. Sparrow. 1967. Radiat. Bot., Vol. 7, pp. 429-441.

41.  

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). 1996. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR 1996 report to the General Assembly, with annex, United Nations, New York, Sales No. E.96.IX.3.

42.  

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). 1996. Sources and Effects of lionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR 1996 report to the General Assembly, with annex, United Nations, New York, Sales No. E.96.IX.3.

43.  

For additional information, see the section titled “Background” in Chapter 1.

44.  

Todd Hann, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, personal communication, August 13, 2004.



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