Fate and Weathering,

 

144

   

 Surface Oil Evaporation Weathering,

 

145

   

 Photooxidation,

 

149

   

 Water-in-Oil Emulsification,

 

151

   

 Fate of Physically and Chemically Entrained Oil Droplets in the Water Column,

 

157

   

 Biodegradation,

 

165

   

 Models,

 

180

   

 Sensitivity Study,

 

181

   

 Applying Knowledge about the Transport and Fate of Dispersed Oil to Support Decisionmaking,

 

187

   

 Fate and Weathering of Oil,

 

187

5

 

TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DISPERSANTS AND DISPERSED OIL

 

193

   

 Testing Procedures for Dispersant and Dispersed Oil Toxicity,

 

198

   

 Toxicity Tests,

 

198

   

 Mesocosms,

 

206

   

 Dispersant Toxicity,

 

207

   

 Toxicity of Dispersed Oil,

 

215

   

 Route of Exposure,

 

216

   

 Mode of Action,

 

219

   

 Photoenhanced Toxicity,

 

223

   

 Effects on Biological Communities,

 

231

   

 Water-Column Organisms,

 

231

   

 Intertidal and Subtidal Habitats,

 

250

   

 Wildlife,

 

254

   

 Microbial Communities,

 

257

   

 Coral Reefs,

 

259

   

 Mangroves,

 

270

   

 Improving the Use of Information about Effects in Decisionmaking,

 

271

6

 

RESEARCH PRIORITIES TO SUPPORT DISPERSANT USE DECISIONMAKING

 

277

   

D.1  Will Mechanical Response Be Sufficient?,

 

280

   

D.2  Is the Spilled Oil or Refined Product Known to Be Dispersible?,

 

280

   

D.3  Are Sufficient Chemical Response Assets Available to Treat the Spill?,

 

282



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