climate research focuses on the interaction of dynamics, radiation, and cloud processes, and their roles in determining the sensitivity of the global climate to forcings such as increasing carbon dioxide or aerosol burden. Recent work has resulted in a “Fixed Anvil Temperature” or FAT Hypothesis, that indicates that on the basis of fundamental physical processes the temperature at the tops of tropical anvil clouds should remain about the same during climate change. In the area of dynamics, he is currently interested in the atmospheric dynamical processes that give rise to intrinsic low-frequency variability, especially the interaction of transient and stationary waves with zonal jets in middle latitudes. Dr. Hartmann was a member of the NRC’s Climate Research Committee and Chair of the Panel on Climate Change Feedbacks. He received his Ph.D. in geophysical fluid dynamics from Princeton University.

Phil Jones is the Director of the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) and a Professor in the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, England. Dr. Jones completed a B.A. in Environmental Sciences at the University of Lancaster and an M.Sc. and Ph.D. at the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. His research has focused in instrumental climate change, paleoclimatology, detection of climate change and the extension of riverflow records in the United Kingdom using long rainfall records. Dr. Jones is recognized for the time series of hemispheric and global surface temperatures, which he updates on a monthly basis. He has coedited four books: Climate Since A.D. 1500 (with Ray Bradley); Climatic Variations and Forcing Mechanisms of the Last 2000 Years (with Ray Bradley and Jean Jouzel); History and Climate: Memories of the Future (with Astrid Ogilvie, Trevor Davies and Keith Briffa) and Improved Understanding of Past Climatic Variability from Early European Instrumental Sources (with Dario Camuffo). Dr. Jones has been a fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society since 1992 and was on the Editorial Committee of the International Journal of Climatology until 1995. Currently, he is on the editorial board of Climatic Change, an elected member of Academia Europaea since 1998 and a member of the American Meteorological Society since 2001. He was jointly awarded the Hugh Robert Mill Medal in 1995 by the Royal Meteorological Society for work on U.K. rainfall variability, and in 1997 the Outstanding Scientific Paper Award by the Environmental Research Laboratories/NOAA for being a coauthor on the paper “A search for Human Influences on the Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere,” by Ben Santer et al. in Nature, 382, 39-46 (1996). Most recently Dr. Jones was awarded the first Hans Oesschger Medal from the European Geophysical Society (now the European Geosciences Union) in 2002 and the International Journal of Climatology prize of the Royal Meteorological Society for papers published in the last five years, also in 2002.

Kenneth Kunkel is Head of the Atmospheric Environment Section at the Illinois State Water Survey. He has also served as Director of the Midwestern Regional Climate Center and Director of the Office of Applied Climatology. Dr. Kunkel’s research interests include climate variability and change, climate extremes, and boundary layer meteorology. He has considerable experience working with U.S. surface climate datasets and has published a number of papers on analysis of such datasets. In addition, Dr. Kunkel has knowledge of the limitations and proper use of surface temperature data.



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