e. Reciprocity Agreements: Multiple-entry and multiple-year student visas should have high priority in reciprocity negotiations.

f. Change of Status: If the United States wants to retain the best students, procedures for change of status should be clarified and streamlined.

Maintaining and strengthening the S&E enterprise of the United States, particularly by attracting the best domestic and international graduate students and postdoctoral scholars, will require the cooperation of government, universities, and industry to agree on an appropriate balance between openness, mobility, and economic and national security. Making choices will not be easy, but the recommendations provided here define priorities, data, and analyses needed to determine substantive steps that will advance the vitality of US research and attract the talented people necessary to perform it. The key is to endow our research institutions and S&E labor force with the flexibility needed to respond to rapid changes in the landscape of our nation’s S&E enterprise.

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