forms in Australia, the government reduced its per-student support of higher-education institutions. In an effort to maintain financial solvency, universities began to view education as an exportable economic product and to regard students—primarily undergraduates—as consumers. Those consumers are vigorously sought by marketers, advertisers, and salespeople as sources of revenue. A major strategy has been developing offshore programs of Australian universities, which increased from 25 in 1991 to almost 1,600 in 2003. By 2003, the nation was educating about 210,000 international students, or about 20 percent of the number of its own university-level students. Of the 210,000, 70,000 studied in their own countries94 through a combination of “offshore,” “transnational,” or collaborative mechanisms.