societal cost effectiveness, socioeconomic studies, engine design, engineering mechanics, fluid dynamics, and fuels and lubricants. In recent years, he has been involved with intelligent transportation systems, accrediting and advising on engineering education, and the development of curricula to teach science and mathematics in an engineering context to K-12 students.


JOHN A. ARMSTRONG [NAE] is the former vice president of science and technology and member of the Corporate Management Board at IBM. His expertise is in quantum electronics and laser physics. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Dr. Armstrong holds an AB in physics from Harvard College (1956) and a PhD (1961) from Harvard University for research in nuclear magnetic resonance at high pressures. He joined IBM in 1963 as a research staff member. In 1976, he became director of physical sciences for the company and was responsible for a major part of IBM research in physics, chemistry, and materials science. In 1980, he was appointed to the IBM Corporate Technical Committee. A year later, he was made manager of materials and technology development at the IBM East Fishkill, NY, development laboratory, working on advanced bipolar technology and associated packaging. In 1983, Dr. Armstrong was named vice president for logic and memory, in the Research Division. In 1986, he became director of research; in the following year, he was elected IBM vice president and director of research. In 1989, he was elected a member of the Corporate Management Board and named IBM vice president for science and technology.


RICHARD B. FREEMAN is Herbert Ascherman Chair of Economics at Harvard University, codirector of the Labor and Worklife Program at the Harvard Law School, and director of the Labor Studies Program at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). He is also senior research fellow in labor markets at the Centre for Economic Performance at the London School of Economics (LSE) and visiting professor at the LSE. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of Sigma Xi. He has served on five panels of the National Research Council, including the Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Scientists. He has published over 300 articles dealing with a wide array of subjects, including the job market for scientists and engineers, the growth and decline of unions, the effects of immigration and trade on inequality, restructuring European welfare states, international labor standards, Chinese labor markets, transitional economies, youth labor-market problems, crime, self-organizing nonunions in the labor market, employee involvement programs, and income distribution and equity in the marketplace. He



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