Appendix D
Bibliography

AAU, AAAS, NAS, ACE, NASULGC, NAE, IOM, NAFSA, ACS, APS, AACC, AAPT, AERA, ASBMS, ASM, CoGR, CGS, EMS, FASEB, IEEE-USA, LSA, NAICU, NPA, SAA, and SPIE. 2004. Statement and recommendations on visa problems harming America’s scientific, economic, and security interests. Available at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/visas/Statement%20on%20Visa%20Problems.pdf.

Agrawal, Ajay, Devesh Kapur, and John McHale. Defying Distance: Examining the Influence of the Diaspora on Scientific Knowledge Flows. The Fourth Annual Roundtable on Engineering Entrepreneurship Research (REER) Conference, December 3-5, 2004, Atlanta, GA. Available at http://mgt.gatech.edu/news_room/news/2004/reer/files/agrawal.pdf.

Alphonso, Caroline. 2005. “Facing U.S. security hurdles, top students flock to Canada.” The Globe and Mail (February 22). Available at http://www.globetechnology.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20050222.gtstudents22/BNStory/Technology.

Altbach, Philip G. 2004a. “Higher education crosses borders: Can the United States remain the top destination for foreign students?” Change 36(2):18.

——. 2004b. The past and future of Asian universities. Asian Universities: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges, eds. P.G. Altbach and T. Umakoshi. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Board of Directors. 1954. Science 120:958.

Arnone, Michael. 2004. “State Appropriations for higher education, 2003-4.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 50(19):A25.

Aslanbeigui, N., and V. Montecinos. 1998. “Foreign students in US doctoral programs.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 12:171-82.

Attiyeh, Gregory, and Richard Attiyeh. 1997. “Testing for bias in graduate school admissions.” Journal of Human Resources 32(3):524-48.

Auriol, Laudeline. 2004a. Conclusions of Workshop (DSTI/EAS/STP/NESTI(2004)28). OECD Workshop on User Needs for Indicators on Careers of Doctorate Holders, September 27, 2004, Paris.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 161
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Appendix D Bibliography AAU, AAAS, NAS, ACE, NASULGC, NAE, IOM, NAFSA, ACS, APS, AACC, AAPT, AERA, ASBMS, ASM, CoGR, CGS, EMS, FASEB, IEEE-USA, LSA, NAICU, NPA, SAA, and SPIE. 2004. Statement and recommendations on visa problems harming America’s scientific, economic, and security interests. Available at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/visas/Statement%20on%20Visa%20Problems.pdf. Agrawal, Ajay, Devesh Kapur, and John McHale. Defying Distance: Examining the Influence of the Diaspora on Scientific Knowledge Flows. The Fourth Annual Roundtable on Engineering Entrepreneurship Research (REER) Conference, December 3-5, 2004, Atlanta, GA. Available at http://mgt.gatech.edu/news_room/news/2004/reer/files/agrawal.pdf. Alphonso, Caroline. 2005. “Facing U.S. security hurdles, top students flock to Canada.” The Globe and Mail (February 22). Available at http://www.globetechnology.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20050222.gtstudents22/BNStory/Technology. Altbach, Philip G. 2004a. “Higher education crosses borders: Can the United States remain the top destination for foreign students?” Change 36(2):18. ——. 2004b. The past and future of Asian universities. Asian Universities: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges, eds. P.G. Altbach and T. Umakoshi. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Board of Directors. 1954. Science 120:958. Arnone, Michael. 2004. “State Appropriations for higher education, 2003-4.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 50(19):A25. Aslanbeigui, N., and V. Montecinos. 1998. “Foreign students in US doctoral programs.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 12:171-82. Attiyeh, Gregory, and Richard Attiyeh. 1997. “Testing for bias in graduate school admissions.” Journal of Human Resources 32(3):524-48. Auriol, Laudeline. 2004a. Conclusions of Workshop (DSTI/EAS/STP/NESTI(2004)28). OECD Workshop on User Needs for Indicators on Careers of Doctorate Holders, September 27, 2004, Paris.

OCR for page 161
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States ——. 2004b. Why do we need indicators on careers of doctorate holders? (DSTI/EAS/STP/ NESTI/RD(2004)15). OECD Workshop on User Needs for Indicators on Careers of Doctorate Holders, September 27, 2004, Paris. Available at http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2004doc.nsf/809a2d78518a8277c125685d005300b2/c3e666431ef071c8c1256f12002dd411/$FILE/JT00169333.PDF. Bhattacharjee, Yudhijit. 2004. “Settling in on campus.” Science 304:1282-84. Black, Grant, and Paula Stephan. (in press). “The importance of foreign PhD students to US science.” In: Science and the University, eds. R. Ehrenberg and P. Stephan. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Boehlert, Sherwood, Chair of the House Science Committee. 2002. Speech to SUNY Presidents on the Impact of Terrorism on R&D. Bohm, Anthony, and D. P. Chaudhri. 2000. Securing Australia’s Future: An Analysis of the International Education Markets in India, IDP Education Australia Limited, Sydney. Borjas, George J. 2000. Foreign-born Teaching Assistants and the Academic Performance of Undergraduates (Working Paper No. 7635). National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA. ——. 2004a. Do Foreign Students Crowd out Native Students from Graduate Programs? (Working Paper No. 10349). National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA. ——. 2004b. Immigration in high-skill labor markets: The impact of foreign students on the earnings of doctorates. American Economic Association Conference, January 7-9,2005, Philadelphia, PA. Available at http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2005/0108_1430_1201.pdf. Boudard, Emmanuel. 2004. Developing an integrated information system on the career paths and mobility flows of researchers (DSTI/EAS/STP/NESTI/RD(2004)16). OECD Workshop on User Needs for Indicators on Careers of Doctorate Holders, September 27, 2004, Paris. Available at http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2004doc.nsf/8d00615172fd2a63c125685d005300b5/bf685d01c0e55778c1256f110055d5d8/$FILE/JT00169276.PDF. Bratsburg, Bernt. 1995. “The incidence of non-return among foreign students in the United States.” Economics of Education Review 14(4):373-84. Broad, William J. 2004. “U.S. is losing its dominance in the sciences.” New York Times (May 3). Brown, Heath. 2004a. Council of Graduate Schools’ Report Finds US Graduate Schools Adjusting Policies and Procedures to Address Declines in International Graduate Applications and Admits. Council of Graduate Schools, Washington, DC. ——. 2004b. Council of Graduate Schools Finds Decline in New International Graduate Student Enrollment for the Third Consecutive Year. Council of Graduate Schools, Washington, DC. Brown, Heath, and Maria Doulis. 2005. Findings from 2005 CGS International Graduate Admissions Survey I. Council of Graduate Schools, Washington, DC. Burd, Stephen. 2002. “Bush may bar foreign students from ‘sensitive courses’.” Chronicle of Higher Education (April 26), A26. Bureau of Consular Affairs. 2004. Report of the Visa Office. US Department of State, Washington, DC. Available at http://travel.state.gov/visa/report.html. ——. 2005. “Special Visa Processing Procedures - Travelers from State Sponsors of Terrorism.” US Department of State, Washington, DC. Available at http://travel.state.gov/visa/temp/info/info_1300.html. Bureau of Industry and Security, Department of Commerce. 2005. Revision and Clarification of Deemed Export Related Regulatory Requirements. 15 CFR Parts 734 and 735. Burgess, David R. 1998. “Where will the next generation of minority biomedical scientists come from?” Cancer 83(8):1717-19. Busquin, Philippe. 2004. “Investing in people.” Science 303:145.

OCR for page 161
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Caufield, Jim. 2000. UC Nonresident Tuition Policy: Long on Numbers, Short on Vision. Available at http://gsa.asucla.ucla.edu/issues/nonresident.html. Center for the Study of Education Policy, Illinois State University. “Grapevine.” Web page. Available at http://coe.ilstu.edu/grapevine/. Chander, P., and S. Thangavelu. 2004. “Technology adoption, education and immigration policy.” Journal of Development Economics 75(1):79-94. Chelleraj, G., Keith E. Maskus, and A. Mattoo. 2004. The Contribution of Skilled Immigration and International Graduate Students to US Innovation (Working Paper No. 04-10). University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. Chiswick, Barry R. 2000. Are Immigrants Favorably Self-Selected? (IZA DP No. 131). Forschungsinstitute zur Zukunft der Arbeit, Hamburg. Choi, H. 1995. An International Scientific Community: Asian Scholars in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger. Chronicle of Higher Education. 2004. “Stipends for Graduate Assistants, 2003-4.” Web page. Available at http://chronicle.com/stats/stipends/2004/. Clark, X., T. J. Hatton, and J. G. Williamson. 2002. Where do US immigrants come from, and why? (Working Paper No. 8998). National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA. Cohen, W. I. 2001. East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World. New York: Columbia University Press. Commission of the European Communities. Snapshots ‘Brain drain study’, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. Available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/era/pdf/indicators/snap6.pdf. ——. 2001. A Mobility Strategy for the European Research Area (COM 2001 331 final). Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. Available at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/com/cnc/2001/com2001_0331en01.pdf. ——. 2004. On the Admission of Third-Country Nationals to Carry Out Scientific Research in the European Community (COM(2004) 178 final). Commission of the European Communities. Available at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/com/pdf/2004/com2004_0178en01.pdf, Brussels. Committee on Loyalty in Relation to Government Support of Unclassified Research. 1956. “Loyalty and research.” Science 12:660. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. 1993. Science, Technology, and the Federal Government: National Goals for a New Era, Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ——. 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers, Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ——. 2000. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers, Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Conference Board of Canada. 1999. The Economic Implications of International Education for Canada and Nine Comparator Countries: A Comparison of International Education Activities and Economic Performance, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Ottawa, ON. Confessore, Nicholas. May 2005. “Borderline insanity.” Washington Monthly. Council of Graduate Schools. “CGS/GRE Graduate Enrollment and Degrees.” Web page. Available at http://www.cgsnet.org/VirtualCenterResearch/graduateenrollment.htm. Davis, Todd. 2003. Atlas of Student Mobility. New York: Institute of International Education. de Solla Price, Derek J. 1963. Little Science, Big Science … and Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press.

OCR for page 161
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Department of Homeland Security. 2003. 2003 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, Office of Immigration Statistics. Washington, DC: Office of Management, DHS. Available at http://uscis.gov/graphics/shared/aboutus/statistics/. Desai, Mihir A., Devesh Kapur, and John McHale. 2005. “The fiscal impact of the brain drain: Indian emigration to the US.” Journal of Development Economics (in press). Dillon, Sam. 2004. “U.S. slips in attracting the best students.” New York Times (December 21), p. A-1. DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee. 2004. Education in Nuclear Science: A Status Report and Recommendations for the Beginning of the 21st Century, Washington, DC: Department of Energy and National Science Foundation. DTI Global Watch Stem Cell Mission. 2004. Executive Summary: Focus on Asia-Pacific. DTI Global Watch Magazine Available at http://www.globalwatchonline.com/mission/tmsmrep.aspx#life. Ducharne, Justine. 2004. “Les universites americaines font-elles encore recette?” Le Figaro (June 30). Editor. 2003. “President’s science council says future health of technology sector is in jeopardy; decline of manufacturing could impact innovation ‘ecosystem’.” Manufacturing & Technology News 10 (18). Available at www.manufacturingnews.com/news/03-1003/art1.html. ——.2004. “A visa system tangled in red tape and misconceived security rules is hurting America. The Economist (May 6). Editorial Desk. 2005. Sanity on visas for students. New York Times (16 February), p. A-20. Educational Testing Service. 2004. “GRE Volumes by Country.” Web page. Available at http://ftp.ets.org/pub/gre/volumes_00_04.pdf. Enders, Jurgen, and Alexis-Michael Mugabushaka. 2004. Wissenshaft und Karriere: Ehrfahrungen und Werdegange ehemahleiger Stipendiaten der DFG. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Bonn. Esterlin, Richard. 1993. Prices and Preferences in Choice of Career: The Switch to Business, 1972-1987 (Discussion Paper 2-1). Williams College Project on the Economics of Higher Education, Williamstown, MA. Available at http://www.williams.edu/wpehe/DPs/DP21.pdf. European Commission. 2002. Towards a European Research Area. Science, Technology, and Innovation Key Figures 2002, European Communities. Available at http://www.cordis.lu/rtd2002/indicators/home.html., Brussels. European Union. “Researcher’s Mobility Portal.” Web page. Available at http://europa.eu.int/eracareers/index_en.cfm. Expert Group on Future Skill Needs. 2004. A Model to Predict the Supply and Demand for Researchers and Research Personnel in Line with Ireland’s Strategy for Contributing to the European Research Area’s 3% Initiative, Forfás, Dublin. Farley, Reynolds, Charlotte Steeh, Tara Jackson, Maria Krysan, and Keith Reeves. 1993. “Continuing Racial Residential Segregation in Detroit. ‘Chocolate City, Vanilla Suburbs Revisited’.” Journal of Housing Research 4(1):1-21. Federal Republic of Germany. “Green Card Germany.” Web page. Available at http://www.green-card-germany.com/. Field, Kelly. 2005. “Visa delays stemming from scholars’ security clearances are down since last year, report says.” Chronicle of Higher Education (February 18). Finn, Michael G. 2003. Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from US Universities, 2001, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN. Fleisher, B., M. Hashimoto, and B. A. Weinberg. 2002. “Foreign GTAs can be effective teachers in economics.” Journal of Economic Education 33(4):299-325.

OCR for page 161
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Foucart, Stephane. 2003. ≪ Outre-Atlantique, la peur de l’etranger pourrait ralentir la recherche. ≫ Le Monde (June 6). Freeman, R. B., E. Jin, and C-Y. Shen. 2004. Where Do New US-trained Science-Engineering PhDs Come From?, (Working Paper No. 10544). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economics Research. Freeman, Richard B. 1971. The Market for College-Trained Manpower. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ——. 1980. “Employment opportunities: The doctorate manpower market.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33(2):185-96. ——. 2004. Data! Data! My kingdom for data! Data needs for analyzing the S&E job market. In: The U.S. Scientific and Technical Workforce: Improving Data for Decisionmaking, eds. T.K. Kelly et al. Arlington, VA: RAND Corporation. Freeman, Richard D., Eric Weinstein, Elizabeth Marincola, Janet Rosenbaum, and Frank Solomon. 2001. Careers and Rewards in Bio Sciences. Washington, DC: American Society for Cell Biology. Gallup-Black, Adria. 2004. “International student mobility: Project Atlas.” International Higher Education 37:10-11. Garrison, Howard H., Susan A. Gerbi, and Paul W. Kincade. 2003. “In an era of scientific opportunity, are there opportunities for biomedical scientists?” FASEB Journal 17: 2169-73. Gast, Alice P. 2004. The impact of restricting information access on science and technology. In: A Little Knowledge: Privacy, Security, and Public Information after September 11, eds. P. M. Shane, J. Podesta, and R. C. Leone. New York: The Century Foundation. German Academic International Network (GAIN). Web page. Available at http://www.gainnetwork.org. Goodman, Allen E. 2002. “Rethinking foreign students.” National Review (18 June). Goswani, Urmi A. 2005. “India fails to mature into learning hub.” The Economic Times (India Times) (January 13). Available at http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-98027,prtpage-1.cms. Government Accountability Office. 2004a. Performance of Information System to Monitor Foreign Student and Exchange Visitors Has Improved, but Issues Remain (GAO-04-690). Washington, DC: GAO. ——. 2004b. Border Security: Improvements Needed to Reduce Time Taken to Adjudicate Visas for Science Students and Scholars (GAO-04-371). Washington, DC: GAO. ——. 2005a. National Nuclear Security Administration: Contractors’ Strategies to Recruit and Retain a Critically Skilled Workforce are Generally Effective (GAO-05-164). Washington, DC: GAO. ——. 2005b. Border Security: Streamlined Visas Mantis Program Has Lowered Burden on Foreign Science Students and Scholars, but Further Refinements Needed (GAO-05-198). Washington, DC: GAO. Graduate College, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2003. A Guide to the Campus Tuition Waiver Policy on Graduate Assistantships. http://www.grad.uiuc.edu/Policies/TuitionWaiverPolicy.pdf. Greenberg, Daniel S. 2004. “What scientist shortage?” Washington Post (May 19), p. A-23. Gupta, D., M. Nerad, and J. Cerny. “International PhDs: Exploring the decision to stay or return.” International Higher Education 31 (Spring): 2-4. Gupta, Deepak. 2004. “The Return Choice and Careers of Foreign-born US S&E PhDs.” Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. Herbst, Christian, Michael Prellberg, Helene Laube, and Thomas Clark. 2004. “Keep out!” Financial Times Deutschland (June 24).

OCR for page 161
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Hicks, Diana. 2004. “Asian countries strengthen their research.” Issues in Science and Technology 2:75-78. Hon, Chua Chin. 2005. “In a reversal of an old mindset, nine in 10 say they will go home where opportunities abound.” Straits Times (January). Available at http://www.straitstimes.com/sub/asia/story/0,5562,291279,00.html? Institute for International Education. 2004. Open Doors Report on International Educational Exchange. IIE, New York. Available at www.iiebooks.org/opendoors2004.html. ——. 2004. Open Doors Report on International Educational Exchange: Survey of Foreign Student and Scholar Enrollment and Visa Trends for Fall 2004. IIE, New York. International English Language Testing System (IELTS). 2004. “Annual Review 2003.” Web page. Available at http://www.ielts.org/library/AnnualReview2003_v1.pdf. Italian Ministero degli Affari Esteri. “DAVINCI.” Web page. Available at http://www.esteri.it/davinci/index.asp?lang=eng. Jacobs, Janice L., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Visa Services. 2003. Testimony on Foreign Students and Scholars. Available at http://travel.state.gov/visa/testimony1.html. Jacobs, L. H., and C. B. Friedman. 1988. Students achievement under foreign teaching associates compared with native teaching associates. Journal of Higher Education 59(3): 551-63. Jayaram, N. 2004. Higher Education in India. Asian Universities: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges. Eds. P. G. Altbach and T. Umakoshi. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press. Jewsiewicki, Bogumil. 2003. The Brain Drain in an Era of Liberalism (Millennium Research No. 9). Canadian Bureau for International Education, Ottawa, ON. Johnson, David L. 2001. Relationship Between Stay Rates of PhD Recipients on Temporary Visas and Relative Economic Conditions in Country of Origin (Working Paper). Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. Kapur, Devesh, and John McHale. 2005. Sojourns and software: Internationally mobile human capital and high-tech industry development in India, Ireland, and Israel. In: From Underdogs to Tigers: The Rise and Growth of the Software Industry in Israel, Ireland and India, eds. A. Arora and A. Gambardella. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kelly, Terrence, William P. Butz, Stephan Carroll, David Adamson, and Gabrielle Bloom. 2004. The US Scientific and Technical Workforce: Improving Data for Decisionmaking, Arlington, VA: RAND Corporation. Kennedy, Donald, Jim Jim Austin, Kirstie Urquhart, and Crispin Taylor. 2004. “Supply without demand.” Science 303:1105. Kerr, William. 2004. Ethnic Scientific Communities and International Technology Diffusion (Working Paper). Available at http://econ-www.mit.edu/faculty/download_pdf.php?id=994. King, David A. 2004. “The Scientific Impact of Nations.” Nature 430:311-16. Koh, Hey-Keung. 2002. Trends in International Student Flows to the United States. IIE, New York. Lee, Sooho. 2004. “Foreign-born scientists in the United States: Do they perform differently than native-born scientists?” Dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology. Levin, Sharon G., Grant C. Black, Anne E. Winkler, and Paula E. Stephan. 2004. Differential Employment Patterns for Citizens and Non-Citizens in Science and Engineering in the United States: Minting and Competitive Effects (Working Paper). University of Missouri, St. Louis. Lin-Liu, Jen. 2002. “Brain Gain in Taiwan.” Chronicle of Higher Education (October 18). Lingenfelter, Paul. The public interest in higher education accountability. University of Texas System National Accountability Symposium, October 27-28, 2004, Austin, TX. Available at http://www.utsystem.edu/cha/acctsymp2004/Lingenfelter.ppt.

OCR for page 161
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Lubchenco, Jane, and Goverdhan Mehta. 2004. “International Scientific Meetings.” Science 305: 1531. MaCurdy, Thomas, Thomas Nechyba, and Jay Bhattacharya. 1998. “An Economic Framework for Assessing the Fiscal Impacts of Immigration.” In: The Immigration Debate: Studies in the Economic, Demographic and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Marginson, Simon. 2004. Australian higher education: National and global markets. Markets in Higher Education: Rhetoric or Reality? eds. P. Teixeira, B. Jongbloed, D. Dill, and A. Amaral, pp. 207-40. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. Martin, Philip. 1999. Immigration and Farm Labor: An Overview. Available at http://www.farmfoundation.org/1999NPPEC/martin.pdf. Martin-Rovet, Dominique. 2003. Opportunities for Outstanding Young Scientists in Europe to Create an Independent Research Team. European Science Foundation, Strasbourg. Mashelkar, Raghunath A. 2004. “India’s R&D: Reaching for the top.” Science 307:1415. May, Robert M. 2004. “Raising Europe’s game.” Nature 430:831. Mazzarol, Tim, and Geoffrey N. Soutar. 2001. Push-Pull Factors in Influencing International Student Destination Choice (Discussion Paper 0105). Centre for Entrepreneurial Management and Innovation, University of Western Australia, Crawley. Mervis, Jeffrey. 2004. “Many origins, one destination.” Science 304:1277. Metzke, Robert. 2000. “WANTED: 75,000 IT Pros—Germany Considers Green Card Model.” Science’s Next Wave. Available at http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2000-03/02/6. Min, Weifang. 2004. “Chinese Higher Education: The legacy of the past and the context of the future.” In: Asian Universities: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges, eds. P.G. Altbach and T. Umakoshi. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press. NAFSA, the Association of International Educators. 2004. The Economic Benefits of International Education to the United States of America: A Statistical Analysis. Available at http://www.nafsa.org/content/PublicPolicy/DataonInternationalEducation/econBenefits.htm. National Academies International Visitors Office. “Organizing an International Meeting in the United States.” Web page. Available at http://www7.nationalacademies.org/visas/Organizing_a_Meeting.html. National Center for Education Statistics. 2000. 1999-2000 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:2000). Washington, DC: US Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. 2002. Digest of Education Statistics 2002 (NCES 2003060). US Department of Education, Washington, DC. ——. 2003. Digest of Education Statistics, 2003. Washington, DC: US Department of Education. Available at http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/. National Opinion Research Center. 2005. Science, Technology, and the Federal Government: National Goals for a New Era. NORC, Chicago, IL. Available at http://www.norc.uchicago.edu/issues/docdata.htm. National Research Council. 1985. Immigration Statistics: A Story of Neglect. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ——. 1995a. Assessment of Research Doctorate Programs. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ——. 1995b. Research Doctorate Programs in the United States: Continuity and Change. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ——. 1996. Statistics on U.S. Immigration: An Assessment of Data Needs for Future Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ——. 1999. Measuring the Science and Engineering Enterprise: Priorities for the Division of Science Resources Studies. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

OCR for page 161
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States ——. 2000. Forecasting Demand and Supply of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers: Report of a Workshop on Methodology. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ——. 2001. Trends in Federal Support of Research and Graduate Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ——. 2002. Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ——. 2005a. Assessment of Department of Defense Basic Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ——. 2005b. Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ——. 2005c. Advancing the Nation’s Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Science Board. 2003. Broadening Participation in Science and Engineering Research and Education: Workshop Proceedings (NSB 04-72). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ——. 2003. The Science and Engineering Workforce: Realizing America’s Potential (NSB 03-69). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ——. 2004. Science and Engineering Indicators, 2004 (Volume 1: NSB 04-1; Volume 2, NSB 04-1A). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resource Statistics. “WebCASPAR Database System.” Web page. Available at http://caspar.nsf.gov. ——. 2003. Academic Research and Development Expenditures: Fiscal Year 2001 (NSF 03-316). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ——. 2004. Graduate Enrollment in Science and Engineering Fields Reaches New Peak; First-Time Enrollment of Foreign Students Declines (NSF 04-326). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ——. 2004. Survey of Earned Doctorates 2002. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ——. 2004. Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering (GSS) 2002. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ——. 2005. Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards 2003 (NSF 05-300). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Nekovee, Maziar. 2000. “Obstacles to Mobility in Europe: Young Mobile Researchers Meet EC Policy-Makers in Crete.” Science’s Next Wave. Available at http://nextwave.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2000-11/02/13?ck=nck. Nerad, Maresi, and Joseph Cerny. 1999. “Postdoctoral patterns, career advancement, and problems.” Science 285: 1533-35. ——. 2000. “Improving doctoral education: Recommendations from the Ph.Ds Ten Years Later Study.” The Communicator XXXIII: 2. Neuschatz, Michael, and Patrick J. Mulvey. 2003. Physics Students from Abroad in the Post-9/11 Era (AIP Publication No. R-437). American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD. Ning, Cui. 2004. “Record number of scholars headed abroad.” China Daily (December 22) Available at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-12/22/content_042422.htm. Nobel e-Museum: The Official Web Site of The Nobel Foundation. “Chronology of Nobel Prize winners in Physics, Chemistry, and Physiology or Medicine.” Web page. Available at http://www.nobel.se/index.html. Norris, Julie T. 2003. Restrictions on Research Awards: Troublesome Clauses. A Report of the AAU/COGR Task Force. Office of Science and Technology Policy and Council on Government Relations, Washington, DC. Nye, Joseph S. Jr. 2004. “You can’t get here from there.” New York Times (November 29).

OCR for page 161
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. 2001. Overview of State-sponsored Terrorism. Washington, DC: US Department of State. Available at http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2000/2441.htm. Office of the Spokesman. 2005. US extends visa validity for Chinese tourist and business travelers (Media Note 2005/56). Washington, DC: US Department of State. Available at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2005/40818.htm. ——. 2005. Extension of Validity for Science-Related Interagency Visa Clearances (Media Note 2005/182). Washington, DC: US Department of State. Available at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2005/42212.htm. Offices of Inspectors General. 2004. Interagency Review of Foreign National Access to Sensitive Technology (Report No. D-2004-062). Washington, DC: US Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, Homeland Security, and State, and Central Intelligence Agency. Oltman, Philip K., and Rodney T. Hartnett. 1984. The Role of GRE General and Subject Test Scores in Graduate Program Admission (ETS Research Report 84-14). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1999. Main Definitions and Conventions for the Measurement of Research and Development, 5th Edition (Frascati Manual). Paris: OECD. ——. 2002. International Mobility of the Highly Skilled (Policy Brief 92 2002 01 1P4). OECD, Washington, DC. Available at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/9/20/1950028.pdf. ——. 2002. Main Science and Technology Indicators. Paris: OECD. ——. 2003. Education at a Glance, Paris: OECD. Paul, Lennart. 2004. “Visa-Probleme halten Gastforscher von USA fern.” Die Welt (September 9). Pew Global Attitudes Project. “Pew Global Attitudes Project Home page.” Web page. Available at http://people-press.org/pgap/. Pouliot, Joe. 2005a. “Boehlert praises improvements to visa processing.” House Science Committee Press Office. (February 13). ——.2005b. Boehlert releases new GAO report finding reduced delays for visas for scientists and students. House Science Committee Press Office (February 18). Prasad, Laxman. Employment Characteristics of PhD Holders in the Field of Science and Technology: Indian Experience (DSTI/EAS/STP/NESTI/RD(2004)23). OECD Workshop on User Needs for Indicators on Careers of Doctorate Holders, 27 September, 2004, Paris. Available at http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2004doc.nsf/809a2d78518a8277c125685d005300b2/a7925492feb132c8c1256f0f00541a7b/$FILE/JT00169100.PDF. Rapaport, Alan I. 1998. Have Forms of Primary Financial Support for S&E Graduate Students Changed During the Last Two Decades? (NSF 99-313). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Recotillet, Isabelle. 2003. Availability and Characteristics of Surveys on the Destination of Doctorate Recipients in OECD Countries. Statistical Analysis of Science, Technology and Industry (Working Paper 2003/9). Paris: OECD. Regets, Mark. 2001. Research and Policy Issues in High-Skilled International Migration. Bonn: IZA. Rizvi, Fazal. 2004. “Offshore Australian higher education.” International Higher Education 37(Fall):7-9. Rominiecki, Joe. 2005. “North Dakota bill addresses student complaint: I can’t understand my prof.” Kansas City Infozine (February 15). Available at http://www.infozine.com/news/stories/op/storiesView/sid/5826/. Rousselot, Fabrice. 2003. “Etudiants etrangers, le parcours d’obstacles.” Liberation (September 11).

OCR for page 161
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Ruesch, A. 2003. “Studium in den USA - kein Traumziel mehr?” Die Neue Zuercher Zeitung (November 12). Saxenian, AnnaLee. 2001. Silicon Valley’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs (Working Paper No. 15). Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California, San Diego. Available at http://www.ccis-ucsd.org/PUBLICATIONS/wrkg15.PDF. Schaaper, Martin. OECD Methodology for Tracking Doctorate Holders and Measuring International Mobility of HRST. Sixth Ibero American Inter-American Workshop on Science and Technology Indicators, September 15-17, 2004, Buenos Aires. Available at http://www.ricyt.org/interior/normalizacion%5CVItaller%5CS2_RRHH%5CSchaaperdoc.pdf. Schmitz, Gregor. 2004. “Ihr koennt zu Hause bleiben.” Spiegel Online (April 29). Schneider, Lisa M., and Jacqueline B. Briel. 1990. Validity of the GRE: 1988-89 Summary Report. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Shanghai’s Jiao Tong University Institute of Higher Education. 2004. “Academic Ranking of World Universities.” Web page. Available at http://ed.sjtu.edu.cn/rank/2004/2004Main.htm. Simon, Denis Fred. 2004. Foreign R&D and the Impact of Globalization on China’s Emerging Technological Trajectory. AAAS S&T Policy Forum, April 19-20, 2004, Washington, DC. Available at http://www.aaas.org/spp/rd/simon404.pdf. Stephan, Paula E. 2004. “What data do labor market researchers needs? A researcher’s perspective.” In: The U.S. Scientific and Technical Workforce: Improving Data for Decisionmaking, eds. T.K. Kelly et al. Arlington, VA: RAND Corporation. Stephan, Paula E., Grant C. Black, James D. Adams, and Sharon G. Levin. 2002. “Survey of foreign recipients of US PhDs.” Science 295:2211-12. Stephan, Paula E. and Sharon G. Levin. 1992. Striking the Mother Lode in Science: The Importance of Age, Time and Place. New York: Oxford University Press. ——. (in press). “Foreign scholars in US science: Contributions and costs.” In: Science and the University, eds. R. Ehrenberg and P. Stephan. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Stephan, Paula E., and Jennifer Ma. 2005. The Increased Frequency and Duration of the Postdoctorate Career Stage. American Economic Association Conference, January 7-9, 2005, Philadelphia, PA. Available at http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2005/0108_1430_1204.pdf. Sternberg, R. J. and Williams W.M. 1997. “Does the Graduate Record Examination predict meaningful success in the graduate training of psychologists? A case study.” American Psychology 52(6):630-41. Stokes, Donald E. 1997. Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Stossel, Scott. 1999. “Uncontrolled experiment: America’s dependency on foreign scientists.” New Republic (March 29). Straubhaar, Thomas. 2000. International Mobility of the Highly Skilled: Brain Gain, Brain Drain, or Brain Exchange (HWWA Discussion Paper 88). Hamburg Institute of International Economics, Hamburg. Available at http://opus.zbw-kiel.de/volltexte/2003/695. Tang, Joyce. 2000. Doing Engineering. The Career Attainment and Mobility of Caucasian, Black, and Asian American Engineers. Lanham, MD: Bowman and Littlefield Publishers. Teitelbaum, Michael. 2004. “Do We Need More Scientists?” In: The U.S. Scientific and Technical Workforce: Improving Data for Decisionmaking, eds. T. K. Kelly et al. Arlington, VA: RAND Corporation. Thurgood, Lori. 2004. Graduate Enrollment in Science and Engineering Fields Reaches a New Peak; First-time Enrollment of Foreign Students Declines (Info Brief NSF 04-326). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

OCR for page 161
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Tremblay, Karine. 2004. Links between academic mobility and immigration. Symposium on International Labour and Academic Mobility: Emerging Trends and Implications for Public Policy, October 22, 2004, Toronto. Available at http://www.wes.org/ewenr/symp/KarineTremblayPaper.pdf. University of Michigan Office of Budget and Planning. 2004. GSI Salary Comparison. Available at http://www.umich.edu/~urel/gsi-sa/comparison.html. University of Texas Office of Accounting. 2003. Exemptions, Waivers and Third Party Billing. Available at http://www.utexas.edu/business/accounting/sar/waivers.html. US Census Bureau, Foreign Trade Division. “Guide to Foreign Trade Statistics.” Web page. Available at http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/guide/index.html. US Department of Commerce. “TradeStat Express.” Web page. Available at http://tse.export.gov/. US Department of Homeland Security. “Immigrations and Customs Enforcement.” Web page. Available at http://www.ice.gov. US Department of Homeland Security, Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services. “Immigration Classifications and Visa Categories.” Web page. Available at http://uscis.gov/graphics/services/visas.htm. US Department of State. “Visa Reciprocity and Country Documents Finder.” Web page. Available at http://travel.state.gov/visa/reciprocity/index.htm. ——. 2003. Standard Operating Procedures No 22: Revision to Visas Mantis Clearance Procedure (Cable 04 State 153587). Available at http://travel.state.gov/visa/laws/telegrams/telegrams_1425.html. ——. 2004. Student and Exchange Visitor Processing Reminder (Cable 04 State 154060). Washington, DC: US Deparment of State. Available at http://travel.state.gov/visa/student_exchange_reminder.html. US Department of State, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. “Foreign Students Yesterday, World Leaders Today.” Web page. Available at http://exchanges.state.gov/education/educationusa/leaders.htm. US Department of State, Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. Defense Trade Controls-Reference Library: International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). Available at http://pmdtc.org/reference.htm. US Government Printing Office. “Export Administrations Regulations Database.” Web page. Available at http://www.access.gpo.gov/bis/ear/ear_data.html. van Hoof, Hubert B., and Marja J. Verbeeten. 2005. “Wine is for drinking, water is for washing: Student opinions about international exchange programs.” Journal of Studies in International Education 9(1):42-61. Wagner, Caroline S. 2002. “The elusive partnership: Science and foreign policy.” Science and Public Policy 29(6):409-17. Wagner, Caroline S., and Loet Leydesdorff. 2005a. “Mapping the network of global science: Comparing international co-authorships from 1990 to 2000.” International Journal of Technology and Globalisation (in press). ——. 2005b. “Network structure, self-organization and the growth of international collaboration in Science.” Research Policy (in press). Walpole, MaryBeth, Nancy W. Burton, Kamau Kanyi, and Altamese Jackenthal. 2002. Selecting Successful Graduate Students: In-Depth Interviews with GRE Users (ETS Research Report 02-08). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Wang, Jessica. 1999. American Science in an Age of Anxiety. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. Wheeler, David L. 2002. “Testing services says GRE scores from China, South Korea, and Taiwan are suspect.” Chronicle of Higher Education (August 16).

OCR for page 161
Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Scholars in the United States Wolf, Eleanor. 1969. “The tipping point in racially changing neighborhoods.” Journal of the American Institute of Planners 29:217-22. World Bank. 2004. Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program Tracer Study IV. World Bank, Washington, DC. Available at http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/scholarships/. Zinberg, Dorothy S. 1991. “Contradictions and complexity: International comparisons in the training of foreign scientists and engineers.” In: The Changing University, ed. D.S. Zinberg. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. Zumeta, W. and J. S. Raveling. 2002. “Attracting the best and the brightest.” Issues in Science and Technology 19:36-40.