TABLE 1-1 Number of US S&E PhDs Awarded by Selected Country of Citizenship, 1966, 1976, 1986, 1996, and 2003a

 

1966

% of Total

% of Temporary Residents

1976

% of Total

% of Temporary Residents

China

84

0.7

5.2

20

0.1

0.7

India

338

3.0

20.8

532

2.9

19.3

S. Korea

73

0.6

4.5

147

0.8

5.3

Taiwan

168

1.5

10.3

544

3.0

19.8

Japan

51

0.4

3.1

91

0.5

3.3

Pakistan

42

0.4

2.6

29

0.2

1.1

Total: Asia 6

756

6.7

46.5

1363

7.5

49.6

Germany (*)

28

0.2

1.7

36

0.2

1.3

United Kingdom (#)

83

0.7

5.1

123

0.7

4.5

Italy

7

0.1

0.4

24

0.1

0.9

France

9

0.1

0.6

35

0.2

1.3

Israel

60

0.5

3.7

80

0.4

2.9

Ireland

3

0.0

0.2

7

0.0

0.3

Total: Europe 6

159

1.4

9.8

262

1.4

9.5

Total PhDs Awarded

11334

 

 

18250

 

 

Total PhDs Awarded to Temporary Residents

1627

14.3

 

2750

15.1

 

aData from National Science Foundation. 2004. Survey of Earned Doctorates 2002. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. (*) Germany includes East Germany, West Germany, and East and West Berlin. (#) UK includes Wales, Great Britain, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and England.

Despite the growing presence of international S&E graduate students and postdoctoral scholars, the data gathered by different sources on their numbers and activities are difficult to compare (see Box 1-1), permitting only an approximate picture of their career status and contributions. For example, few analyses accurately describe their impact on higher education, their research contributions to US industry (if they stay in the United States), or their accomplishments abroad (if they do not stay).3 Nonetheless, the

3  

Terence K. Kelly, et al. 2004. The U.S. Scientific and Technical Workforce: Improving Data for Decisionmaking. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.



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